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Lonely Days by Bayo Adebowale

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Lonely days by bayo adebowale

Lonely Days by Bayo Adebowale.

                                           Lonely days by bayo adebowale

Lonely Days is a prose work composed by Bayo Adebowale. It is a story that presents the bad customs and traditional ceremonies widows are required to go through in Africa.
The author reveals this evil tradition by telling us the story of Yaremi and other widows of Kufi village who go through harrowing and painful judgments at the death of their spouse.
Subject Matter: The major issue of discussion is death and the author especially looks at widowhood in Africa concentrating on the fate or afflictions of widows who are challenged as being the ones accountable for their husbands’ death.
The novelist also sheds light on the isolation and disregard that widows in Africa have to battle with as they are rejected by family members and their children.

Author: Bayo Adebowale.
Country: Nigeria.
Language: English.
First Published: 2006
ISBN: 978-978-029-746-6
Pages: 141 (Spectrum Edition)
Chapters: 14
Genre: Prose.

1) ABOUT AUTHOR
Bayo Adebowale (born 6 June, 1944) is a Nigerian poet, prolific writer, novelist, professor, critic, librarian and founder of the African Heritage Library and Cultural Centre, Adeyipo, Ibadan Oyo State.

Early life

He was born on 6 June 1944 in Ibadan, the capital of Oyo State, southwestern Nigeria into the family of Akangbe Adebowale, who was a farmer. He was trained at Secondary Modern School at Ibadan, where he obtained the West African School Certificate in 1958 before he proceeded to St Peter’s Teacher College where he received the Grade III certificate in education in 1961, the same year he was accepted into Baptist College in Ede for a Grade II Teacher certificate. On October 1971, he proceeded to the University of Ibadan, where he earned a Bachelor of Arts (B. A) degree in English Language in 1974 and completed the compulsory National Youth Service Corps in 1975, the same year he enlisted in the services of the Western State Public Service Commission as education officer before he later became an English instructor at Government Trade Centre, Oyo State. Three years later (1978), he obtained a master’s degree in English language, the same year he enlisted in the Oyo State College of Education as Lecturer I and was later assigned to the Polytechnic of Ibadan, where he grew to the position of Deputy Rector between 1999 and 2003 having received a doctorate degree (Ph. D) in Literature in English from the University of Ilorin in 1997.

2)STUDY GUIDE

Setting
Though anchored in the rural rustic village of Kufi, Lonely Days reflects the predicament of widows in the more extensive Nigerian society and indeed in Africa as a whole. Much of the story spins around Yaremi, the novel’s protagonist.

Plot
The novel opens with Yaremi remembering the events leading to the death of her husband, Ajumobi and her predicament consequently. While mourning Ajumobi’s death, Yaremi experienced great embarrassment from extended family who strongly maintained that she was responsible for her husband’s death. She became very lonely, not only as a result of Ajumobi’s death but also because her two daughters, Segi and Wura, who would have kept her company, had been married off. Her only son, Alani who lived in the city had become so urbanised that he seldom visited Kufi. Yaremi had to parry for herself and take up manly roles. For instance, she had to farm all by herself and clear the bushes around her home in addition to her main job of selling taffeta products.

Yaremi was a very strong and hardworking woman. She got little help and some company from Woye, her grandson who lived with her. Yaremi enjoyed narrating her interesting childhood experiences to Woye in the form of stories while working on taffeta clothes. Through these stories, Woye learnt how to count numbers and also learnt the importance of hardwork and resilience.

Besides Yaremi, there were three other widows in Kufi who had gone through similar ordeals. They often empathised and shared their widowhood experiences with one another whenever they met on the narrow road leading to the village river. One of them was Dedewe who was tortured and humiliated by her husband’s relatives. Dedewe was made to sit alone by her husband’s corpse in a dark room and also compelled to own up to offences she never committed. Another widow, Fayoyin suffered similar fate. Her hair was badly shaved and she was forced to lick libation. The third widow, Radeke was also accused of killing her husband. These allegations stem from the people’s superstitious belief that no death was natural; hence, a husband’s death must have been caused by his wife.

Through Yaremi’s reminiscences, the author introduces his readers to Ajumobi. Ajumobi was a brave and powerful hunter who enjoyed bragging of his prowess as a successful hunter. In his lifetime, he was firm and had absolute control of his household. Ajumobi was a happy and lively man. Like most men in Kufi, he liked drinking palmwine in the company of friends. He was quite ambitious. Prior to his death, he intended to renovate his house and even take a second wife. Yaremi loved her husband greatly and in spite of their many squabbles in his lifetime, she missed his affection and companionship.

Yaremi was economically self-reliant and assertive. Most men in Kufi resented her as they expected their women to always play second fiddle or be in a lower position to them. Like other widows in Kufi, Yaremi was expected to remarry by all means. Radeke, Fayoyin and Dedewe had gone through the cap picking ceremony where they chose new men to replace their deceased husbands.
Yaremi resisted all pressure and chose to remain unmarried. She demonstrated her resolve by turning down proposals from three suitors and refusing to pick up a cap at the cap picking ceremony designed to facilitate her remarriage. As a result, the village elders threatened to confiscate her husband’s property and banish her from the village. The story ends with Yaremi taking off her widowhood garment and expressing a renewed determination to remain in Kufi in spite of all odds.

Themes
i.)  Widowhood or The plight of widows:

The theme of widowhood is the novel’s central theme. The widows in Lonely Days were subjected to pain and disgrace. The widowhood experiences of Yaremi, Dedewe, Fayoyin and Radeke are a microcosm of the plight of widows in the larger Nigerian society and in the African continent as a whole. The author condemns widow inheritance, forced remarriage and other cultural practices that subject widows to pain and humiliation.

ii.) Loneliness:

Another important theme that runs through the novel is the theme of loneliness. Yaremi was very lonely and had to do most things by herself. For instance, she had to appeal to Uncle Deyo, Ajumobi’s friend to help in mending her leaking roof and rebuilding the walls of her house.

iii.) Humiliation:

Yaremi suffered humiliation from extended relations who accused her of killing her husband. Dedewe, Fayoyin and Radeke also suffered humiliation. For instance, Dedewe was made to sit in a dark room by her husband’s corpse while Fayoyin’s hair was badly shaved.  Hardwork or Diligence: The theme of diligence is expressed by Yaremi’s industrious character. The author uses several episodes to encourage hardwork.

iv) Male chauvinism:

This is a belief or notion usually held by men that women are inferior to them. Yaremi suffered hostility from most men in Kufi because of her self-reliant and assertive status.

v.) Survival, Resilience and Determination:

Yaremi had the will and the determination to survive in spite of her predicament as a widow. She worked very hard to earn a decent living and refused to be cowed into accepting traditional sanctions of widow inheritance and remarriage set by her society.

vi.) Superstitions:

The novel explains how superstitious beliefs impact on people’s behaviour. For instance, wives were accused of killing their husbands because of the belief that someone had to be responsible for every death. They also suspected feathered animals like birds as they were usually linked to witchcraft.

vii.) Death:

In Kufi, the people believed that there were good and bad deaths. Yaremi comforted herself with the notion that Ajumobi died a good death. It was also believed that the dead people watch over the living. This explains Yaremi’s many monologues labelled to her late husband, Ajumobi.

Other books by the author(Lonely Days by Bayo Adebowale) are: Out Of His Mind and The Ambitious Village Boy.


SETTING:

The novel’s location is Kufi, an imaginary village in the South-Western part of Nigeria. The author uses Kufi to represent and illustrate the larger society’s treatment of widows.

NARRATIVE TECHNIQUES: lonely days by Bayo Adebowale

The author uses mainly the third person narrative. However, on a few occasions the author let Yaremi tell her own story.

CHARACTERS

The characters in this novel are grouped into major and minor characters.

Major characters in lonely days by Bayo Adebowale

1. Yaremi

She is the protagonist of the novel. Yaremi is a brave, confident, generous, self-empowered and an industrious woman. She is the mother of Segi, Wura and Alani. The death of her husband made her a victim of marginalization, deprivation and victimization.

2. Ajumobi

He was a brave hunter. Ajumobi was Yaremi’s late husband and the father of Segi, Wura and Alani. He was “well to do” in his lifetime. He owned a cocoa farm, trees, banana, kolanut trees and fruiting palm trees. Ajumobi was a loving husband who stuttered when he was angry.

3. Woye

The son of Segi and grandson of Yaremi. He is a hardworking child and worthy companion of Yaremi. He helps Yaremi in her taffeta business and likes hearing to her stories. He is a healthy child who likes playing football. Woye insists on going to school so that he can read the letters of the alphabet like his mates.

Minor characters in lonely days by bayo adebowale

1. Segi

Yaremi’s first daughter and advisere. She is the mother of Woye and the wife of Wande. She lives in Alode with her husband.

2. Alani

He is the only son of Yaremi and late Ajumobi. He lives in Ibadan where he has a booming carpentry business.

3. Uncle Deyo

He was Ajumobi’s bosom friend when Ajumobi was alive. He is a responsible friend and takes his friend’s family as his even after his friend’s demise. He helps Yaremi with difficult chores like the renovation of the leaking roof of her house and rebuilding the walls of her mud house.

4. Fayoyin, Dedewe and Radeke

These are the three widows who are also marginalized and victimized like Yaremi by the customs and tradition of Kufi land.

5. Rogba

He is the village flute player. He displays his talent during the cap-picking ceremony.

6. Ayanwale

He is one of Yaremi’s suitors. He tries to dazzle her with stories of his earthly achievement so she can pick him during the cap-picking ceremony. He is also a drummer.

7. Lanwa

Lanwa is one of Yaremi’s suitors and a wealthy man (farmer) who claims kinship with Yaremi’s late husband.

8. Olonade

He is one of Yaremi’s suitors. He boasts of making Yaremi a mother of twins once she accepts him in the cap-picking ceremony. He is also a wood carver.

9. Sokoti

He is commonly known as “Iron man”. He is a husband to Wura. He is a blacksmith and does his work in Apon where he lives.

10. Wura

She is the second daughter and child of Yaremi and late Ajumobi. She lives with her husband, Sokoti, in Apon.

3) CHAPTER SUMMARY: lonely days by Bayo Adebowale

Chapter 1

Yaremi grieved the death of Ajumobi and tried to console herself with the fact that Ajumobi did not die a shameful death.
The mourners falsely suspected her of having killed her husband.
She became very lonely with no husband or children to keep her company.
Woye, her grandson became her only company. She told him stories of her childhood and taught him number games while making taffeta.

Chapter 2

Chapter 2 captures Yaremi’s everyday routine, especially how she worked hard in the kitchen, in the forest while gathering firewood and in the dyeing yard where she produced her taffeta.
Yaremi is portrayed as a very strong, beautiful and energetic woman in spite of her age.

Chapter 3

This chapter describes the thin road leading to the village river. This road served as a meeting point for widows in Kufi.
The chapter also features stories of humiliation, torture and ill-treatment of other widows in Kufi namely Dedewe, Fayoyin and Radeke.

Chapter 4

Yaremi showed her versatility by combining different tasks. She made stitches, discarded husks of palm kernel and blew chaff off the melon seeds.
She spent her leisure time alternating pleasantries with neighbours and telling Woye stories from her childhood days.
The importance of time management was emphasised in this chapter.
Chapter 5

Woye is portrayed as a very playful child. Yaremi taught Woye how to make a scarecrow to ward off hawks.
The chapter reveals the people’s superstitious beliefs.
Chapter 5 describes events leading to the death of Ajumobi.

Chapter 6

Yaremi is portrayed as an independent woman who was no longer under the control of a man.
This chapter introduces the readers to the character of Ajumobi. Ajumobi is described as a brave and powerful hunter. He was also very ambitious.
Yaremi recalled the moments they spent together and showed how much she adored him.
Ajumobi expressed his desire for a polygamous marriage.

Chapter 7

The author describes moonlight night in Kufi.
Yaremi recalled her relationship with Ajumobi in his lifetime.
She recalled how she insulted him on some occasions and how Ajumobi beat her.
After his death, Ajumobi appeared on different occasions.
Yaremi attempted to ask Ajumobi several rhetorical questions.
Yaremi expressed her desire for Ajumobi’s affection.
Chapter 8

This chapter describes how Yaremi sold her taffeta in different markets and how she dealt with her debtors.
Woye’s ill-health worried Yaremi. She gave him unusual attention and made several promises. These were aimed at making him recover quickly.
Woye recovered from his illness.
Chapter 9

This chapter describes Kufi women. They were hardworking and showed so much devotion to their husbands and children. It also describes how women coped in polygamous homes.
Yaremi displayed her generousity by distributing her food with others.
Yaremi became influential and assertive. Most men in Kufi resented her for these attributes.
Ayanwale, Olonade and Lanwa proposed marriage to Yaremi.
Chapter 10

Yaremi displayed manly attributes.
She chided her admirers and turned down their marriage proposals.
Ajumobi appeared to Yaremi in her dreams assuring her of his presence and support.
Her extended family planned to create a cap picking ceremony to facilitate her remarriage and a purification ritual to make her forget the past.
Chapter 11

Dedeke, Fayoyin and Radeke tried to talk Yaremi into remarriage.
This chapter features the cap picking ceremony.
Yaremi refused to pick a cap at the cap picking ceremony.
The villagers were angry.
Chapter 12

Yaremi suffered great resentment from the villagers as a result of her choice to remain unmarried.
She recalled her happy days with Ajumobi, especially how he showered her with love, care and affection.
She considered leaving Kufi for Adeyipo, her parents’ village.
Chapter 13

Segi visited Adeyipo village. Yaremi confided in Segi and expressed her fears.
The chapter features many unanswered questions associated with a widow’s second marriage.
Woye looked forward to starting school in Olode.
Woye returned to Olode with Segi, his mother.
Chapter 14

Alani, Yareni’s son arrived from the city.
Uncle Deyo scolded him for keeping away from the village and from his father’s properties.
Uncle Deyo took Alani to Ajumobi’s cocoa plantation telling him the farm’s boundaries.
To Yaremi’s chagrin, Alani announced that he was returning to the city and was not interested in cultivating his late father’s farm.
The village elders threatened to seize Ajumobi’s properties and banish Yaremi completely from the village.
Yaremi resolved to remain in Kufi in spite of all odds.

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4) USE OF FIGURATIVE EXPRESSIONS: lonely days by bayo adebowale

The author’s generous use of figurative expressions is evident throughout the novel.

1. Metaphor

This is a figure of speech that equates two things that are not the same. Comparison is done without the use of “as” or “like”. In Lonely Days, the number game, for instance, has a lot of metaphors in it. Page 8 paragraph 3 reads: “Three is the dirty calabash on my mother’s wooden rack…”. See also paragraphs 4, 6, 7, and 8. You may also see paragraphs 1 to 6 of page 10. Another use of metaphoric expression is seen on page 9 paragraph 3 when Yaremi said “Work was music to us, Woye.” See also the last paragraph of Page 15 where the author directly correlates life with fire by saying “Life is fire”. The slippery and narrow river road in Chapter 3 is equally metaphoric. It is directly described as the “Widows’ Road” on which widows thread with caution. The author’s description of a new wife on page 58 also contains a number of metaphors-“A new wife is a polished drum…”; she is a fresh lily…”

2. Simile

This is a figure of speech that compares two non-similar things by the use of “as” or “like”. The author uses simile to describe Yaremi’s loneliness- “Yaremi felt thoroughly abandoned, like a stone at the bottom of a lake” (page 3); “… the extended family’s mockery heaped on her like the strange showers of a January rain” (page 3). Uncle Deyo used simile in describing Alani’s long stay in the city- “You flew away, Alani, like a bird with no destination; like a stone-missile flung aimlessly to an unknown destination from the leather-strap of a catapult”. (page 135)

3. Personification

This is a figure of speech in which human attributes are given to inanimate objects. An example is seen on page 60 paragraph 1- “the moon peeped and vanished, to reappear playfully again among the woods, seducing onlookers’ souls with serene beauty…” 4. Hyperbole: An exaggerated statement not meant to be taken literally. It’s used for emphasis and comic effect. Ajumobi’s boastings in page 50 contain a lot of hyperbole.

5. Rhetorical Questions:

These are questions that do not require answers. Yaremi asked lots of rhetorical questions on page 69- “where are you now, Ajumobi?” is an example of a rhetorical question. Segi also asked rhetorical questions on pages 126 and 127 where she raised questions on remarriage.

5) IMPORTANT LITERARY DEVICES

Exposition:

Exposition is a literary device used to include background information about the characters, setting and events to the reader. In Lonely Days, the author explains the character of Ajumobi, the marital life of Ajumobi and Yaremi, and events leading up to the death of Ajumobi through Exposition. This exposition is presented through Yaremi’s thoughts, dialogues between Yaremi and Ajumobi as well as monologues.

Falling Action

The falling action in a work of literature is the sequence of events that follow the climax and end in the resolution. In Lonely Days the falling action occurs after Yaremi refused to pick a cap at the cap-picking ceremony: She experienced great resentment from the villagers because of her decision not to remarry. They also threatened to banish her from the village and confiscate her husband’s properties.

Rising Action

Rising action is what happens in a story leading up to the most exciting part of the story. In Lonely Days, the rising action occurs where Yaremi’s extended family planned to organise a cap picking ceremony to facilitate her remarriage and her co-widows (Fayoyin, Radeke and Dedewe) tried to convince her to choose a husband at the cap-picking ceremony.

Climax

is the part of the story where the tension or action attains its highest point. In Lonely Days, the climax occurs at the cap-picking ceremony when Yaremi refused to choose a suitor by picking a cap.

Resolution

Resolution is the part of the story’s plotline in which the problem of the story is resolved or worked out. It comes after the falling action and it is typically where the story ends. In Lonely Days, the resolution occurs when Yaremi resolved to remain in Kufi in spite of the village elders’ threat to seize her husband’s properties and banish her from the village.
6) LIKELY QUESTIONS

1. Attempt a chapter summary of Lonely Days.

2. Discuss the character and role of Yaremi in Lonely Days.

3. Discuss the following: i. Five stages of plot ii. the setting iii. the relationship between Yaremi and Ajumobi

4. Discuss the components of oral tradition in Lonely Days

5. Identify and discuss four themes in Lonely Days.

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Education

I’m attracted to you, but not physically – Erica to Laycon (Video)

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I’m attracted to you, but not physically – erica to laycon (video)

BBNaija housemate, Erica has opened up to Laycon that she is not in any way attracted to him physically, but mentally.

She made this known to the rapper during a discussion yesterday after he approached her to reiterate his interest in her.

Recall that Laycon had told Erica on Tuesday that he had feelings for her and cares about being in a relationship with her.

However, hours later, Erica and Kiddwaya had a steamy session in bed.

Seeking clarifications on Tuesday night, Laycon approached Erica to reveal her feelings for him.

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During the conversation, Erica told Laycon that she is only mentally attracted to him but physically attracted to Kiddwaya.

Eric said:

“I’M MENTALLY ATTRACTED TO YOU BUT ATTRACTED TO KIDDWAYA PHYSICALLY. I’VE DECIDED NOT TO OVERTHINK ANYTHING WITH KIDDWAYA ,I JUST WANT TO BE HAPPY. LET’S JUST GO BACK TO HOW WE WERE BUT I HATE MAKING OTHERS FEEL BAD.”

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10 African Countries With the Most Number of Universities

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10 african countries with the most number of universities

Brief History of African Universities

It is being observed that those individuals who are intellectuals, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbour them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce. While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus.

One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.

Among those works that focused on higher education under British influence, in which Eric Ashby is often referred to as a classic.

More recent works include that of Okunor, which focused on West African countries under strong British and American influence such as Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. A significant additional work on higher education is the Eastern and Southern African Universities Research Programme that was conducted in 1984. Such studies commonly view the colonial era as the beginning of modern higher education in Africa and do not refer to the higher education institutions that existed before colonialism.

It is well known that people who are scholars, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbor them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce.

While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus. One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.

African Universities Ranking Among Others

There are many different rankings and league tables, and several African universities consistently per population. The University Rankings focuses on four broad areas that they feel are of particular interest to prospective students: research, teaching, employability, and international outlook.

These four key areas are assessed using six indicators, with each given a different percentage weighting. A strong emphasis is placed on

  1. Academic reputation
  2. Faculty/student ratio
  3. Citations per faculty
  4. Employer reputation
  5. International student ratio
  6. International staff ratio

The World University Rankings places a strong emphasis on reputation. The ‘academic reputation’ is assessed through a global survey completed by academics, and the ’employer reputation’ is assessed through a survey of employers worldwide. While the rankings also score research citations, smaller and specialist institutions can be included in this ranking if they have a strong global reputation.

Notably, South Africa has four universities ranked among the top 200 in Africa;however, here are a few African universities that made it under the top 1000 in the world.

S/N University Country African Ranking World Ranking
1 University of Cape Town South Africa 1 136th
2 University of the Witwatersrand South Africa 2 194th
3 Stellenbosch University South Africa 3 259th
4 Aswan University Egypt 4 436th
5 Covenant  University Nigeria 5 451th 
6 University  of  Kwazulu-Natal South Africa 6 472th
7 Mansoura University Egypt 7 493th
8 University of Ibadan Nigeria 8 524th
9 North-West University Nigeria 9 557th
10 Suez Canal University Egypt 10 586th

Top 10 African Countries with the Most Universities

University education is more than the next level in the learning process; it is a critical component of human development worldwide. It provides not only the high-level skills necessary for every labour market but also the training essential for teachers, doctors, nurses, civil servants, engineers, humanists, entrepreneurs, scientists, social scientists, and a myriad of other personnel. It is these trained individuals who develop the capacity and analytical skills that drive local economies, support civil society, teach children, lead capable governments, and make critical decisions that affect entire societies.

An educated populace is vital in today’s world, with the convergent impacts of globalization, the increasing importance of knowledge as a primary driver of growth, and the information and communication revolution. Knowledge accumulation and application have become significant factors in economic development and are increasingly at the core of a country’s competitive advantage in the global economy.

The combination of increased computing power, diminishing prices of hardware and software, improvement of wireless and satellite technologies, and reduced telecommunication costs have all but removed the space and time barriers to information access and exchange.

S/N Country Number Of Universities Country By Population
1 Nigeria 152 206,139,000
2 South  Africa 136 59,308,123
3 Ethiopia 134 114,963,129
4 Democratic Republic of Congo 60 89,561,456
5 Egypt 55 102,334,567
6 Sudan 52 43,849,234
7 Uganda 46 45,741,567
8 Algeria 39 43,851,786
9 Kenya 39 53,771,234
10 Tanzania 33 59,786,123

These countries simultaneously raised their rates of participation in higher education. Indeed, the countries that benefited most from integration with the world economy achieved the most marked increases in educational levels.

Besides, there is growing evidence that university education, through its role in empowering domestic constituencies, building institutions, and nurturing favourable regulatory frameworks and governance structures, is vital to a country’s efforts. This is to increase social capital and to promote social cohesion, which is proving to be an essential determinant of economic growth and development.

Benefits of Studying in an African University

Study and learn during a Different way
Often those studying in Africa will experience a completely new way of teaching. this will be daunting, but it’ll also open your mind to new ways of learning.

Opportunity to make unforgettable experiences
Study shows that folks are happier and feel more fulfilled once they spend on experience than once they buy new things. once you consider the items that bring you the foremost joy, they’re usually memorable experiences. you’ll get tons of that from studying in Africa

African Degrees are well respected It
If pursuing knowledgeable career is your goal, international education and knowledge on the CV will assist you stand out. it’ll also represent you as someone who is up for a challenge. Especially now that African universities are climbing the ranks in world university rankings

Opportunity to get unique ideas and opportunities
Most of the successful businesses in Africa and Asia were found out by people that gained international exposure and education. Econet, Celtel, IrokoTv, Jumia, and more. By studying in Africa, if you’re curious, you’ll find new ways to unravel a drag back home.

Opportunity to find out a replacement language
Studying during a country that speaks a special official language as yours is among the simplest ways to find out or brush up a replacement language. Imagine being close to communicate in German, French, or Mandarin. that would are available handy along your career path. Africa is diverse when it involves languages. All you’ve got to try to to is pick those that interest you the foremost .

Studying during a foreign country is different from tourism
Travel for a vacation is extremely different from settling during a foreign country for a yearlong study. you’ll get to experience your home of study for a more extended period and familiarize yourself with local knowledge like what tourist traps to avoid and the way to urge the foremost out of your new city.

Opportunity to experience the rich African culture
Yes, food. you only haven’t any idea about the variability of food that exists out there. you’ll never know until you venture out. you’ll even discover your new favourite.

Opportunity to require advantage of lower tuition fees
This, of course, depends on where you study in Africa. However, if you select a location in many parts of continental Europe, Asia, and Latin America , you’ll find it’s impossible to review at a highly reputed university without stepping into debt.

You will meet a various range of individuals
You will experience exposure to several differing types of individuals won’t only assist you to develop your people skills, but it’ll also offer you a firmer knowledge of others.

Enjoy international student discounts
Many famous Universities in Africa destinations offer student discounts for various activities, from transportation, bookstores to movie tickets and museums. you only need to spend wisely.

Opportunity to form lifelong friends
You will quickly develop the attitude that we are during this , along side other international students. this will end in lifelong friendships, even with the local students. you’ll not love every single person you meet, but the probabilities are that you’ll meet a minimum of one lifelong friend.

You will gain a more excellent knowledge of various cultures
As you observe and learn why people from different cultures do things the way they are doing , your emotional intelligence develops. you’ll learn to be less judgmental.

Opportunity to become spontaneous and adventurous
Being during a foreign environment ignites your adventurous nature. You tend to require to explore your new environment. Open your mind up to new experiences and sights and learn an excellent deal while having some fun.

Opportunity to explore together with your spare time
In between lectures and lab sessions, studying Africa should leave you with many time to explore. Whether you’re one for visiting iconic landmarks, trying new foods, or bartering at local markets, there’s sure to be a far better way of paying some time than scrolling through Facebook!

There is a robust involve strengthening universities and research within the new Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025. Its objectives include boosting postgraduate and post-doctoral education and growing competitive awards to nurture young academics, more international research cooperation, and expanding centres of excellence and institutional links.

Tertiary education and research are given more stress than in previous education statements, reflecting continental realization of their importance to growth and development.

The Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025, or CESA 16-25, is driven by a desire to realize quality education and training that gives the continent with “efficient human resources adapted to African core values and thus ready to achieve the vision and ambitions of the African Union.”

Strategic Objectives of African Universities
Revitalize the teaching profession to make sure quality and relevance in the least levels of education.
To build, rehabilitate, and support education infrastructure and develop policies that ensure a permanent stress-free and conducive learning environment for all to expand access to quality education in the least levels, including informal and non-formal settings.
Harness the capacity of ICT to enhance access, quality, and management of education and training systems.
Ensure acquisition of requisite knowledge and skills also as improved completion rates altogether groups through harmonization processes across all levels for national and regional integration.
Accelerate processes resulting in gender parity and equity.
Launch comprehensive and useful literacy programs across the continent.
Strengthen the science and arithmetic curricula in youth training and disseminate knowledge domain and culture in society.
Expand technical and vocational opportunities at both secondary and tertiary levels and strengthen linkages between the planet of labor and education and training systems.
Revitalize and expand tertiary education, research, and innovation to deal with continental challenges and promote global competitiveness.
Promote peace education and conflict prevention and determination in the least levels of education and for all age groups.
Improve management of education systems and build capacity for data collection, management, analysis, communication, and use.
Create a coalition of stakeholders to facilitate and support activities resulting from the implementation of CESA 16-25. Of importance to education is that the got to train well-qualified teachers and deliver continuous professional development.
Good university programs should integrate entrepreneurship and leadership training in their curriculum, in order that they produce graduates who have the soft-skills to play an impactful role in Africa’s economic transformation, and who begin not as job-seekers but as job creators. Eventually, aligning education to the stress of the market requires that we measure how successful universities fuse the lecture hall with the planet of labor .

Furthermore, the African countries with the foremost universities span across ten countries, from Uganda within the east to Nigeria within the west, Morocco within the north to South Africa at the southernmost tip of the continent.

In the University rankings, Two of South Africa’s universities feature within the top 200 of the worldwide rankings: the University of Cape Town is Africa’s top university, sitting at joint 136th position, while the University of Witwatersrand occupies the joint 194th spot.

Overall, Egypt and South Africa are the 2 best represented African countries within the ranking, with 20 and 10 universities each. Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa all have universities within the top 500 of the worldwide ranking. Finally, the ranking rates university performance using 13 different indicators; a number of which are measuring teaching, research, research impact, innovation, and international outlook.

In summary, variety is that the spice of life. Why not take that bold step towards gaining admission to review in Africa. YOUR SUCCESS MATTERS!

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How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

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How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

Today we are using generated company symbols to properly mark your social networks.
If you still do not have a logo and corporate identity, then our Logaster generator will always help to develop them quickly and efficiently.

Why should your business be represented on social networks?
Social networks are an integral part of the modern Internet, they have a huge audience and will become worthy platforms for promoting your brand. So, why does your company have to have pages on popular social networks?

Internet reputation management. Corporate social media accounts will help you post the most current, relevant and reliable information about the company, cover its activities from the best perspectives, which will positively affect your reputation;

Strengthen industry influence. Social networks are considered to be a powerful networking tool – creating useful links in the industry that interests you. Owing to this, you can quickly identify and collect useful information and connections for potential customers , associates, staff, investors;

Expanding audience reach. With the help of social networks, you will be able to significantly increase the number of points of contact with the target audience, a significant part of which may want to purchase your goods or services;

Improving customer loyalty. By regularly visiting your corporate accounts, you can work with customer reviews, complaints and suggestions. Prompt feedback will help you make your audience much more loyal and positive;

More effective search engine promotion. Conscientious maintenance of pages on social networks with frequent updating of unique content will significantly improve the position of your company’s website in search engine delivery (Google, Yandex);

Benefits for other marketing tools. Proper use of social media will bring an additional effect for solving other marketing tasks of your brand – from a corporate blog and electronic mailings to webinars or offline events.How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

We have therefore mentioned the principal reasons why you should build company accounts in common social networks.

More reasons can be found here.

What social networks should be made out?
The choice of the channel with which you can “reach out” to the target audience, and the competent design of the profile is an important and necessary marketing move.

The most popular among businesses in the CIS are sites such as Instagram, Facebook, VK, Odnoklassniki, YouTube. Here are some tips for choosing social networks for maintaining and promoting:

Which social networks should be emphasized largely depends on the subject of the project. For example, if your business is associated with any kind of creativity, then social networks such as YouTube (for creating video content), Instagram (photos of products, especially designer clothes, clothes, hand-made), SoundCloud (writing music) are best suited for its promotion.

If you have a typical company, VK and Facebook will provide the best response to the “basic” social networks. As for the Instagram service, it has proven itself for various areas of online business, including online stores (especially with goods for women), creative services, etc.

Closely monitor web analytics – it will help determine which services the largest number of visitors and purchases come to you from. By default, VK, Facebook, Odnoklassniki are considered the most useful among our entrepreneurs, followed by Twitter, Instagram and Youtube.

At the same time, we recommend not to “spray” on all available social networks, but to focus on those that lead major customers. It will be useful to study the pages of competitors, which can suggest some useful details. Of course, this advice is for those projects that already have a small traffic to the site.

You can also create corporate accounts in all specified social networks, arrange them, but only 2-3 of them are actively promoted and updated – the most effective for you. So you can save your time and at the same time not miss potential customers.

How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

A professional publishing and communication strategy for every channel is equally essential. For example, Facebook and VK are ideally suited for posting informational content (posts, articles, news), working with reviews, orders and customer requests, targeted advertising, etc.

In turn, Instagram ideally sells goods or services with photos, and on YouTube you can effectively post video reviews and presentations of your products, instructions.

Proper design of social networks – why is it so important?
It is not enough just to create company accounts in social networks, you also need to issue them in a high-quality manner. Proper branding plays a very important role, since any Internet user is now simply overloaded with information, especially in social networks. There is an opinion that an ordinary person sees hundreds of logos of various brands every day – both online and in reality.

Do not believe? Then just look back on the sides, go to your favourite sites and count the number of corporate symbols surrounding you.

Careful design of social networks will help to stand out against the background of numerous visual “spam”, and it will also provide your business with a number of advantages:

With it, you can attract the attention of users, help them better know your brand, highlight it against the background of symbols of other companies and competitors. The presence of a logo or other elements of corporate identity will allow the audience not to miss important news, promotions or other updates to your company;

You will be able to create a more holistic image of the company by branding social networks. Such sites are very important points of contact with customers, so the use of corporate identity will help you to remain consistent, while maintaining the integrity of your image in the eyes of the audience;

Branded content looks more attractive than regular photos, videos or text. With it, you can increase customer loyalty, gently advertise your brand, “accustom” them to your materials – as a result, they will respond positively to them by default.

As you can see, the competent design of social networks is of great importance for any enterprise, helping to establish a closer relationship with customers, which will positively affect the development of your business.

Social Media Branding Tips
So, you have developed a logo and corporate identity, created pages on social networks, defined their main goals (promotion of goods / services, work with reviews, etc.). Now is the time to proceed to the design of your accounts, following these tips:

Be consistent with the style of the pages, everywhere use the same fonts, color schemes, graphic elements, etc. Only in this way will you achieve that people will recognize your corporate colors even without a logo or company name;

The dimensions and other parameters of your logo should be adapted to the requirements of each individual social network. Do not use the logo of the same size for all sites, as it can be displayed there in cropped or stretched form. By the way, the Logaster service will help you immediately download various logo options of all necessary dimensions for popular social networks;

If the space on the avatar is limited, then it is better to use a simplified version of the logo, for example, without a text warehouse;

Pay special attention to the cover and photo (logo) of the account, because it is on them that the first look of each visitor is directed. It is important that they have the same style and color scheme with your corporate identity. You will be able to find a suitable caption for the theme of your business on photo stocks, or you can order it from a designer;

We recommend that you follow identical positioning and design when designing pages on different social networks. For example, if your logo on Facebook is in the lower right corner, then try to place it in about the same place and on other platforms (if possible);

You can also put any short text on the cover of your account – especially if it is really important / interesting information, for example, about a promotion, and you want users to see it first.

Having completed the design of the page, be sure to test it on all possible devices – PC, laptop, tablet, smartphone, etc. Make sure that all key elements look equally good at any screen resolution, not stretched or cropped. Any seeming trifle can significantly affect the reputation of your company and the loyalty of its audience.

Next, we will tell you how to upload your logo to the pages of popular social networks.

How to add an avatar (profile photo) on social networks
Below we consider the process of uploading a logo to Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Vkontakte, OK.ru, LinkedIn, YouTube and Pinterest. Make sure you have the right size logo versions.

Image sizes for social networks (2020):
Facebook
Image to external links: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 630 px
Cover: 820 x 312 px
Profile Photo: 170 x 170 px

In contact with
Image to external links: 537 x 240 px
Picture for post: 700 x 500 px
Profile photo: 200 x 500 px

Twitter
Tweet picture: 1024 x 675 px
Cover: 1500 x 500 px
Profile photo: 400 x 400 px

Instagram
Post picture: 1080 x 1080 px
Profile photo: 110 x 110 px

YouTube
Image over video: 1280 x 720 px
Channel cover: 2560 x 1440 px
Profile photo: 800 x 800 px

Pinterest
Picture for pin: 1000 x 1500 px
Profile photo: 165 x 165 px

Linkedin
Image to external links:: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 1200 px
Cover: 1584 x 768 px
Profile photo: 300 x 300 px

OK.ru
Picture for post: 1680 x 1680 px
Cover: 1340 x 320 px
Profile Photo: 190 x 190 px

How to upload an image
Facebook

First, make sure that you have a logo in PNG format of the right size – you can add it to your Facebook page.

How to add or change profile photo:

1. Log in to your Facebook account and go to your page.
2. Move the cursor over the place for the photo and click on the camera icon.
3. Select “Upload Photo”.
4. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. If necessary, the image can be cropped and arranged in accordance with the plan.
5. Click “Save.”

facebook min
How to add or change a cover:
1. Go to your page, hover over the cover image and click “Change Cover”.
2. Select Upload Photo.
3. Select the logo file and click Open. Position the image as you see fit.
4. Click Save.

Please note that although your profile photo is displayed on the user’s page as a square, in the news feed it takes the form of a circle. If you have a square logo, reduce its size so that the corners are not cut and it is not too crowded in a circle.

Twitter

File size requirements are listed here.
Note: unlike Facebook, where business accounts are created on the basis of personal accounts, Twitter needs to have a separate page for the company or project.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Twitter account and open your page by clicking on your name.
2. Click the Edit profile button on the right side of the page and click on your photo. Click Select Photo.
3. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. Position the logo as you see fit.
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.

How to add or change the image in the header:
1. Go to your page and click the “Edit Profile” button.
2. Click on the header and select the Add header option.
3. Select a file and click “Open.”
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.

In contact with

File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a VK group and community:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
If you do not have an avatar yet, the text “Upload a photo” will be highlighted in its place;
(if the image is already available, then just point it and the pop-up menu will offer you to update the photo).
2. Click on it and upload the logo;
3. Make sure that when reducing the avatar to a round version, your logo does not cease to be recognizable. To do this, select the desired area by clicking on “Change thumbnail”.

How to add or change cover art in a VK group and community:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Go to community settings;
3, Click on “Download” opposite “Community Cover;
4. Download the logo;
Make sure that the logo is not ridiculously cropped.

OK.ru

File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a group in Odnoklassniki:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Hover over the profile picture and click on “Add Image” from the pop-up menu;
3. Download the logo.

Instagram

File size requirements are listed here.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Instagram account from your phone. Open your profile by clicking on the corresponding icon.
2. Click on the profile photo and select “Upload Photo”. Select a file with a logo and press “Select”.
3. On the mobile device, click “Edit Profile” and select “Change Profile Photo”. After you select the file, click “Finish.”

instagram
LinkedIn

File size requirements are listed here.

How to add a logo to your LinkedIn company page:
1. On your profile page, click on the photo thumbnail and select “Change” in the “Company Page” tab.
2. Click the “Edit” button and click on the “Edit Page” line.
3. Scroll to the “Company Logo” section. Click the “Edit” button and add / change the logo. You can also change the location of the logo by dragging it to the desired location.
4. Click “Save.”

LinkedIn
YouTube

File size requirements are listed here and here.

How to add or change a profile photo (channel icon):
1. Log into your YouTube account.
2. Click on the line My Channel, located under the profile photo in the upper right.
3. Hover over an existing photo and click on the edit icon.
4. Click “Edit” and select the logo file. Position it as you see fit.

How to add or change channel background image:
1. Going to My channel, hover over the background image and click on the edit (or add) icon.
2. Download the file and see how it is displayed on various devices. Position it as you see fit.
3. Click “Select.”

Pinterest

File size requirements are listed here.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Pinterest account.
2. Click on the ellipsis at the top, then click on the “Settings” button. Scroll down to the Profile section.
3. Click “Change Image,” then select the logo file. Ra

arrange it as you see fit.
4. Click “Save Settings.”

Useful services for designing social networks
We have prepared a small list of services that will be useful to you when designing social networks. Bookmark them so you don’t lose:

Logaster – creating and downloading logos optimized for the requirements of social networks.
Crello – create designs for social media covers.
Sproutsociale – optimization of the size of finished images to the requirements of social networks.
Pablo.buffer.com – search for images for covers and overlay text on them.
Pixabay is a free photo stock for finding cover pictures.
Pexels is a bank of free photos for creating covers and posts on social networks.
Unsplash is another photo stock for social networks.
Jaymantri – abstract pictures for creating cover or post backgrounds.
Designspiration – search for inspiration.
Fonts.google.com – a collection of free fonts.
Coolors.co – collections of color schemes that will be useful in the design of posts and covers.
Google.com/test/mobile-friendly – check page optimization for mobile devices.

Representative offices in social networks significantly stimulate the development of the company, making it possible to increase its recognition and increase the number of points of contact with customers. Following these tips, you will create really powerful marketing tools that will help you attract many potential customers from popular social media.

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