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Crossing the Bar

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Critical analysis of  the poem Crossing The Bar 

Table of Content

Background Of Crossing The Bar By Alfred Lord Tennyson 

Crossing The Bar Poem Settings

Crossing The Bar Poem Subject Matter/Summary

Analysis of the poem crossing the bar

Crossing The Bar Themes

Crossing The Bar Figures Of Speech /Poetic Devices

About the Poet

 

Crossing the Bar

Sunset and evening star,  
And one clear call for me!
And may there be no moaning of the bar,
When I put out to sea,

But such a tide as moving seems asleep,
Too full for sound and foam,
When that which drew from out the boundless deep
Turns again home.

Twilight and evening bell,
And after that the dark!
And may there be no sadness of farewell,
When I embark;

For tho’ from out our bourne of Time and Place
The flood may bear me far,
I hope to see my Pilot face to face
When I have cross’d the bar.

Background Of Crossing The Bar By Alfred Lord Tennyson

Alfred, Lord Tennyson was the Poet Laureate of Britain and Ireland for some decades and “Crossing the one of the poems he treasured most. He ensured that this poem was listed last in all his poetry volumes while alive. He also left instructions that in any collection of his poems after his death this particular poem should always be listed last. There must have been a reason for this but none was given by the Poet Laureate himself. However, it is possible to guess that this placement is connected with the significance of this position being the last one. Accordingly, it speaks of the wish of the poet to have his readers see the poem as his last creative effort and, by implication, a symbol of his final action a meditation and preparedness to embrace death whenever it comes before his transition to etermity. An account has it that Tennyson, while on a short voyage across the Solent, a body of water that separates mainland England from The Isle of Wight, got very sick. He later recovered, but had got jolted by the possibility of death. Already at an advanced age, the experience was sufficient to inspire a meditation on death. “Crossing the Bar” was written when Tennyson was eighty years old, three years before his death. John Donne’s metaphysical poem, “Death Be Not Proud” is one of the poems that demystify the power of death: Alfred Tennyson’s “Crossing the Bar” is another. In another of Tennyson’s poems titled “All Things will Die the poetic persona states thus: “The streams will cease to flow/The wind ,will cease to blow/The clouds will cease to fleet The heart will cease to beat/For all things must die/All must die”. Indeed, all things must live and die, Death is a phenomenon that is common to the rich And the poor, and to the wise and the simple and Tennyson emphasized this point in “Crossing the Bar and other poems “Ulysses” and “Tithonus” are two other poems by that are preoccupied with death, albeit, the tone of both is not as optimistic as that of crossing the Bar Death is a universal fact of existence. The poem relates the fact that death is inevitable and it must be faced with some courage

Crossing The Bar Poem Settings

The physical setting of the poem is clearly a neighbourhood that is not far from a habour or the sea The temporal setting of the poem is the evening hours or dusk, when the sun is receding, an appropriate period of the day to talk about a sober and somber subject such as death. Evening is the time when most people are expected to retire back home after a hard day’s job and probably reflect on the day’s exploits. This time will obviously provide an appropriate mood to reflect on the subject matter of the poem. There are also speculations that Tennyson composed the poem while on a sea voyage. The different nature imagery in the poem lends credence to this speculation. Moreover, sea travel was the most common form of transportation in Victorian England. during which time the poet composed the poem. The temporal setting of the poem is Victorian England.

Crossing The Bar Poem Subject Matter/Summary

The poem is a meditation on death. It begins with a reflection ofthe poetic-persona on what he deseriles as “one clear call for me!” (l. 2) on a certain evening when he realizes that it is time for him the sea. He hopes that the sea will have become calm after her usual turbulent movement
He further expresses the hope that when twilight eventually turns into darkness and he consequently embarks on his journey, his people will not be sad over his departure. Finally, he notes that though the journey may take him to a far and distant location, he believes it would be profitable because it will afford him the opportunity to meet his Pilot, Metaphorically speaking, the journey is actually death. Therefore, “Crossing the Bar” relates the poetic persona’s preoccupation with the coming of death, an inevitable phenomenon. Instead of the usual fright and anxiety that many display at the approach of death, the poetic persona faces death calmly. The tone of the poem depicts neither fear nor distress. At the liten! level, the “bar” in this context is a nautical term for a ridge of sand formed at the shore, by moving tides At the metaphorical level, the “bar” refers to crossing the threshold from mortality into another realm of experience, possibly immortality.

Analysis of the poem crossing the bar

Analysis Of Lines 1-4 (Stanza1) Of The Poem Crossing The Bar

This stanza begins by drawing attention to the temporal setting of the poem and the poetic persona’s moment of awareness. He becomes aware of the inevitable journey ahead of him following “one clear call” (1 2). The call comes on a certain evening while the persona beholds a star in the gathering darkness in the sky. The “Sunset and evening star” act as a reminder for the speaker that it is time for the journey. Resolved on heeding the call and embarking on the journey, he wishes for a clement weather or peaceful passage. Thus, this first stanza introduces the setting of the poem. It relates fact that the end of a period is at hand. The words “sunset” and “evening star” denote a drawing close, and in this case, the poetic persona realizes that his life is gradually drawing to a
close as he nears the end of his days on earth. The second line asserts that the poetic persona has been summoned he has received a call to which he must give heed. The poetic persona tells that the call is a clear one: is an unmistakable call that must be promptly answered. The exclamation mark at the end of line 2 emphasizes the importance of the call, Lines 3-4 present the wishes of the persona. He wishes that there would be no moaning of the bar, when he goes on a sea voyage, as he proceeds to answer the call

Analysis Of Lines 5-8 (Stanza 2) Of The Poem Crossing The Bar

This stanza continues and re-emphasizes the poetic persona’s wish for a clement weather in the course of his impeding sea voyage. He looks forward to a tide that moves as if it is asleep. Usually, turbulence in the movement of the sea occurs when sea creatures are hyperactive or other elements like the wind force them out of their position in the water. Realizing this, the persona wishes for a tide which comes after such creatures are returned to the “boundless deep” (1. 3). The first stanza already relates that the persona is ready to set forth, in order to heed the call. The second stanza presents the persona’s wisb for a favourable condition for the voyage. Seafarers usually long for a full tide that would make the the sandbar easy and uneventful. When such a full tide sweeps the ship across the there would be “no moaning of the bar” (1 3). The last line denotes the destination of the moving ship. The poetic persona affirms that the voyage is a homeward one, only that this home extraterrestrial nature,

Analysis Of Lines 9-12 (Stanza 3) Of The Poem Crossing The Bar

These lines, beginning with Twilight and evening bell” (I, 9), draw attention to the time of the poetic persona’s meditation. After twilight, naturally darkness falls Apparently, the darkness is equated with persona’s departure since darkness will render him invisible. He hopes that his departure will not use any kind of sadness or wailing from his loved ones. This 9th line, “twilight and evening bell’ reiterates the imagery of a closing, an ending. Here, the poetic persona contemplates what happens after a voyage o the land of the unknown. He relates that after the transition from life to death, there would be “the dark” 10), which symbolizes all that is unknown about the next life, Lines 11-12 state the persona’s wish for an uneventful death. He wishes that there would be no sadness and sorrow when He finally departs this life. The word “embark” (l. 12) depicts that the persona is getting off from this present life and entering into another realm, another phase of experience. These lines highlight the fact that death is a transition from one realm of living to another. The persona notes that the end of this life is the beginning of another one

Analysis Of Lines 13-16 (Stanza 4) Of The Poem Crossing The Bar

Here, it is noted that the poetic persona’s journey is such that time and space cannot limit. However, it is still worthwhile because it will afford him the chance to “see my Pilot face to face (1. 15). The pilot in this context refers to God, whom Tennysson apparently acknowledges as the ultimate Guide. In this last the poetic persona contemplates his destination and what he would do and see there. He realizes that the transition might bear him into a place that is far and unknown and one that he is not familiar with but he hopes to see his Pilot in this In this death is figuratively captured as the flood” (1,13) that translates a person from one phase of existence to another. The last line, line He
“when I have crossed the bar”, again relates the certainty of the poetic persona approaching death.
faces this phase of his life with courage, hope and equanimity.

Crossing The Bar Themes

1. The theme of Death in Crossing The Bar

Literally, the poem is about someone intent or beckoned to undertake a journey on the sea. Figuratively however it is about someone realizing the approach of his death. The “Sunset” and “evening” referred poem actually mean that period of life when man’s instinct tells him that the end of his existence on the earth is imminent. Although this usually happens at old age, it can also happen before such a time. The poetic persona presents an attitude which does not a typical fear of death attitude which many usually have. He looks forward to death, a journey of He, however, expresses a desire for a peaceful death when he notes: “And may there be no moaning of the bar …/But such a tide as moving seems asleep” (ll. 3 and 5) The sadness and wailing which usually.attend people’s death are also detested by the poet. He hopes no such conducts would attend his death In the poem, death is not conceived as the end of life or the end of everything. It is seen as a journey and a transition from one plane of existence to another. This is
perhaps why the poet does not want his death attended by sadness. The fact that life continues after death is evidenced in the poet’s hope that he will see his “Pilot face to face” (l.16) after “crossing the bar”. As universally believed and accepted. death is presented as inevitable. It is a sure thing in the life of every creature. This is underscored by the poet’s use of the adverbial “when” each time he talks about death. It can therefore be asserted that Crossing the Bar” is a also a poem about the transience of death. The poem presents a poetic persona who sees his death approaching and faces it with courage and hope. The poem attests to the fact that this life as we know is not eternal. The poem relates that all things would soon fade and pass away. The poem underscores the fact that man is a mortal being: hence, he would face death sooner or late Just as there is “one clear call” for the poetic persona, everyman
s clear call would eventually come. The poetic persona speaks with certainty in regards to his death and his translation into another realm of existence

2. The theme of Hope in Crossing The Bar

Hope is an important theme of the poem and it is expressed in each of the four stanzas making up the poem. In the first stanza, this theme is noticed where the poet recognizes his impending death but
hopes that when it eventually comes, it would not be attended by any form of agitation or pain. This hopeful desire is re-inscribed in the second stanza where the poet likens the kind of circumstance of his desired death to moving seems asleep” (I, 5.), that is, a relatively peaceful one. The note of optimism which also comes across as desire in the poem is also seen in the expression, “And there may be no sadness of farewell/When embark” (ll. 11-12). The most expressive and emphatic hope is found in the last two lines of the poem where the persona says he hopes to see his “Pilot face-to-face after crossing the bar. With this last expression, we have a hopeful view of death presented in the poem Death is made to appear attractive, rather than frightening. The poem shows the courage exhibited by the poetic persona in the face of death. He accepts the impending call with tranquility. He is neither agitated nor afraid. Despite the fact that the poetic persona perceives that the end of his pilgrimage on earth is at hand, he is not frightful, rather, he looks forward to meeting his Pilot and seeing the One who
steered the course of his life, face to face. The poetic persona “preaches” a calm acceptance of death and dying since they are inevitable components of this life

3. The Theme of Grief free farewell in Crossing The Bar

the poetic personae has it emphasized in the poem that no one should feel bad, cry or mourn when he dies. This is because he is going to see his creator in a better place

4. The theme of Courage in the face of death in Crossing The Bar

in the poem, one is encouraged to embrace the phenomenon of death since it is inevitable and will always come to us.

5. The theme of Time in Crossing The Bar

one of the prominent themes in the poem is the concept of time. The reader is meant to understand that there is time for everything and this time takes permission from no one to occur, and as such, waits for no
one. The time to be born and time to die. Then, it tells us not to bother about the time of death but to embrace it. It would also preach that when any awful event of life occurs, one should embrace it so as to be able to understand and proffer a lasting solution to it.

Crossing The Bar Poem Structure

The poem comprises sixteen lines, which are divided into four stanzas. The first and the third quatrains are linked thematically and have a few devices in common. Both begin with references to time, which are actually figurative. Both also comment on the poetic persona’s wishes, The structures of the lines in each of the quatrains are also parallel. In the first line of stanza one and first line of stanza three, the lexical and grammatical items belong to the same classes, Line 2 in each of the stanzas is marked by A exclamation, Stanzas 2 and 4 also preserve a link as each begins with a qualifier.
The lines of the poem are arranged in alternate rhyme scheme, viz: abab cdod efef gaga. The length of the lines varies; while Avmost consist of six syllables, lines 3, 5, 7. 13 and 15 consists of ten syllables. The varied length of lines aids the poet in painting the tides and waves of the sea in the reader’s mind. Additionally, there is the replication of the structure in stanzas l and 2 while those in stanzas 3 and 4 for emphasis. The rhyme scheme and the rhythm make it lyrical, no wonder it has been set to music and it appears in many churches’ hymnals.

Crossing The Bar Figures Of Speech /Poetic Devices

Below are the figurative language in crossing the bar.

IRONY IN CROSSING THE BAR

This simply means.opposite of what is meant. The use of this technique is not obvious in the poem. However it can be fished out easily with a close attention. In reality, death is not something to cheer about since it means that someone, probably someone dear to heart, is gone and gone forever. But the poem encourages the reader to accept the event of death with a good heart, whether you are the deceased or a relation. Hence, it is ironical as the reader expects that death will be condemned, rather, it is condoned.

EUPHEMISM IN CROSSING THE BAR

This is when something harsh and unpleasant is said or expressed in a mild way. The notion of death which is known to be unpleasant is set in the poem as something simple and normal. Mild words and expressions like, “one clear call, I embark and crost the bar” are.used in the poem to refer to death.

METAPHOR IN CROSSING THE BAR

The entire poem is one long metaphor that offers a meditation on the inevitability of death. Ordinarily the poem reads as a piece on a proposed sea voyage. A close reading however reveals that the journey in question is actually one to the land of the dead. Besides presenting the entire poem as a metaphor, specific words, phrases and ideas in the poem are used metaphorically. From the very first line where the poet talks about “Sunset and evening star”, metaphor is employed. The idea of sunset and evening refers to old age when it steadily becomes certain that existence in the earthly realm is coming to an end. The word “Twilight” in line 9 also has the same metaphorical meaning. The idea of evening bell’ in the same line is also suggestive of the fact that the time is up. In the evening or at twilight people naturally stop work and return home. After the “evening bell” comes The dark” is also another metaphor, meaning death. Further examples of metaphor in the poem can be seen in the expressions “moaning of the bar” (l. 3), “sadness of farewell” (1. 11) “boume of Time and Place”
(l 13) “crossed the bar” (I. 16), “my Pilot (l. 15). While the first two expressions refer to the conventional ery grief and lament that attend the death of people, the other two refer to death and God respectively The idea of flood” carrying the poetic persona far away is also metaphorical of death. The journey to be embark upon by the poetic persona is also metaphorical because it refers to death

SYMBOLISM IN CROSSING THE BAR

Closely linked to metaphor is the use of symbolism in the poem. Some of the instances of metaphorical
the poem are also symbolically relevant. Such temporal references by words like “sunset”, “evening” and “twilight” are symbolic of both the poetic-persona’s old age as well as imminent death. The “dark” referred to in line 10 is clearly symbolic of death. The “bar” that the persona looks forward to crossing is symbolic of what divides life and death. Traditional beliefs have it that a man’s life consists of three seasons
morning, afternoon and evening or night. Images of sunset and twilight
clearly depict that the end of the persona’s days are at hand. Phrases
such as “no moaning of the bar”(I
3), “full of sound and foam” (l. 6) and “evening bell” 9) invite the reader to participate in the actions of the poem by listening to and also imagining the poetic persona’s experiences. Words such as “tide
and “foam produce images that enable the reader to share in the poetic persona’s feelings. Nautical
mages also abound in the poem. Such words as “deep”, “flood’
sea” and “tide” all serve to create a
vivid background and setting for the poem.

CROSSING THE BAR IMAGERY

The use of imagery in the poem occurs in two broad ways, which are visual and audio. The visual form
can be further classified into maritime and temporal image
The poet makes use of several sea and water related registers. These words are bar, tide, flood, boundless
deep, sea, foam and embark. The words, in combination, easily evoke the idea or picture of a harbour and an impending voyage. More importantly, they draw attention to the physical setting of the poem. The use of time-related words such as evening”, “sunset” and “twilight” also suggests the temporal setting of the poem. At the literal level, it suggests that the poetic persona’s meditation as seen in the poem takes place in the evening hours. At the figurative level, it points to a period or stage of the poet’s life, specifically in terms of age. Audio imagery is equally prevalent in the poem. From words such as “moaning”, “sound and foam”, “evening bell” to “call for me” and “sadness of farewell”, the reader’s sense of hearing is mentally activated bell” and tends to perceive these sound related actions. For instance, “moaning” engenders a perception of painful sound while “evening bell” evokes the ominous sound, which signals the death of a person in a Christian community.

CROSSING THE BAR PERSONIFICATION

There are some instances of personification in the poem, In line 3, the poetic persona talks about “moaning of the bar”. The bar, which refers to the sandbar that is usually mounted at sea shore to prevent sea waves from overflowing its banks, certainly does not moan, just as tides lack the attribute of sleeping. In lines 5 and 12, these statements, “But such a tide as moving seems asleep” and “The flood may bear me far” respectively show the use of personification by the poet. The tide and the flood are personified to further deepen the comparison of the vast sea through which the l protagonist must travel to his destination in the world of the unknown. The expressions are particularly significant for the function in the overall conception of the entire poem as a metaphorical piece.

PARALLELISM IN CROSSING THE BAR

As noted in the discussion of the structure of the poem, the poet makes use of parallel structure syntactically, semantically and, to a large extent, mechanically between each of the lines in stanza land the corresponding lines in stanza 3. This alternation of parallel structure in terms of stanzaic grouping also finds a parallel in the alternate rhyme scheme of the poem

ALLITERATION IN CROSSING THE BAR

In lines 2 and 6 of the poem, we have the sounds /kki and /t/ alliterate respectively. Line 2 reads “An one clear call for me” while Line 6 reads “Too full for sound and foam”. The distinctness engendered by the prominence of pitch that results from a repeat of/kl in line 2 underscores the beckoning significance of the “Sunset and evening star” in the previous line. The sound /f in the second example emphasizes the idea of fullness implied in the expression. The repetition of these sounds also enhances the lyrical quality of the poem.

RHYME IN CROSSING THE BAR

The poet employs altermate rhyme in his verse. The rhyme scheme for the sixteen-line poem is abab odod efolgaga. As usual with rhyme, this sound device enhances the lyrical quality of the poem.

THE USE OF ALLEGORY IN CROSSING THE BAR

The poet employs allegory a device through which one says something that could mean what it means and something else. This is to say that “Crossing the bar” is open to both literal and metaphorical readings. At the literal level, the poem presents a persona who is ready to set sail for sea. The poetic persona prepares to heed the call of duty and take on a sea voyage. He hopes and prays that the tides would be favourable so he could have an uneventful sail. At the metaphorical level of analysis, the poetic persona has senses that his days on earth are drawing to a close and he is getting prepared for the jourmey that would translate him from this life into the next. The poem relate the fact that there is a
call sent especially to the persona and the persona heeds all the call without fear or displeasure. The poem also relates the fact that all must one day depart from the present world, for an unknown one. The poetic persona hopes to meet his Maker and Pilot, face to face after he must have crossed the bar- the barrier between life and death, and between mortality and immortality,

About the Poet

One of the most popular and well-loved British poets, Alfred, Lord Tennyson lived between 1809 and 1892. He belonged to the Victorian era of English literature. He was the Poet Laureate of Britain and Ireland from 1850 until his death in 1892, making him the longest serving English Poet Laureate to date. He wrote many poetry volumes, among which are Poems, Chiefly Lyrical (830), The Princess the Light Brigade (854).

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Education

I’m attracted to you, but not physically – Erica to Laycon (Video)

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I’m attracted to you, but not physically – erica to laycon (video)

BBNaija housemate, Erica has opened up to Laycon that she is not in any way attracted to him physically, but mentally.

She made this known to the rapper during a discussion yesterday after he approached her to reiterate his interest in her.

Recall that Laycon had told Erica on Tuesday that he had feelings for her and cares about being in a relationship with her.

However, hours later, Erica and Kiddwaya had a steamy session in bed.

Seeking clarifications on Tuesday night, Laycon approached Erica to reveal her feelings for him.

Related:  Download Video: Hellas Verona 2 – 3 Bologna Highlights

During the conversation, Erica told Laycon that she is only mentally attracted to him but physically attracted to Kiddwaya.

Eric said:

“I’M MENTALLY ATTRACTED TO YOU BUT ATTRACTED TO KIDDWAYA PHYSICALLY. I’VE DECIDED NOT TO OVERTHINK ANYTHING WITH KIDDWAYA ,I JUST WANT TO BE HAPPY. LET’S JUST GO BACK TO HOW WE WERE BUT I HATE MAKING OTHERS FEEL BAD.”

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10 African Countries With the Most Number of Universities

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10 african countries with the most number of universities

Brief History of African Universities

It is being observed that those individuals who are intellectuals, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbour them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce. While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus.

One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.

Among those works that focused on higher education under British influence, in which Eric Ashby is often referred to as a classic.

More recent works include that of Okunor, which focused on West African countries under strong British and American influence such as Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. A significant additional work on higher education is the Eastern and Southern African Universities Research Programme that was conducted in 1984. Such studies commonly view the colonial era as the beginning of modern higher education in Africa and do not refer to the higher education institutions that existed before colonialism.

It is well known that people who are scholars, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbor them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce.

While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus. One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.

African Universities Ranking Among Others

There are many different rankings and league tables, and several African universities consistently per population. The University Rankings focuses on four broad areas that they feel are of particular interest to prospective students: research, teaching, employability, and international outlook.

These four key areas are assessed using six indicators, with each given a different percentage weighting. A strong emphasis is placed on

  1. Academic reputation
  2. Faculty/student ratio
  3. Citations per faculty
  4. Employer reputation
  5. International student ratio
  6. International staff ratio

The World University Rankings places a strong emphasis on reputation. The ‘academic reputation’ is assessed through a global survey completed by academics, and the ’employer reputation’ is assessed through a survey of employers worldwide. While the rankings also score research citations, smaller and specialist institutions can be included in this ranking if they have a strong global reputation.

Notably, South Africa has four universities ranked among the top 200 in Africa;however, here are a few African universities that made it under the top 1000 in the world.

S/N University Country African Ranking World Ranking
1 University of Cape Town South Africa 1 136th
2 University of the Witwatersrand South Africa 2 194th
3 Stellenbosch University South Africa 3 259th
4 Aswan University Egypt 4 436th
5 Covenant  University Nigeria 5 451th 
6 University  of  Kwazulu-Natal South Africa 6 472th
7 Mansoura University Egypt 7 493th
8 University of Ibadan Nigeria 8 524th
9 North-West University Nigeria 9 557th
10 Suez Canal University Egypt 10 586th

Top 10 African Countries with the Most Universities

University education is more than the next level in the learning process; it is a critical component of human development worldwide. It provides not only the high-level skills necessary for every labour market but also the training essential for teachers, doctors, nurses, civil servants, engineers, humanists, entrepreneurs, scientists, social scientists, and a myriad of other personnel. It is these trained individuals who develop the capacity and analytical skills that drive local economies, support civil society, teach children, lead capable governments, and make critical decisions that affect entire societies.

An educated populace is vital in today’s world, with the convergent impacts of globalization, the increasing importance of knowledge as a primary driver of growth, and the information and communication revolution. Knowledge accumulation and application have become significant factors in economic development and are increasingly at the core of a country’s competitive advantage in the global economy.

The combination of increased computing power, diminishing prices of hardware and software, improvement of wireless and satellite technologies, and reduced telecommunication costs have all but removed the space and time barriers to information access and exchange.

S/N Country Number Of Universities Country By Population
1 Nigeria 152 206,139,000
2 South  Africa 136 59,308,123
3 Ethiopia 134 114,963,129
4 Democratic Republic of Congo 60 89,561,456
5 Egypt 55 102,334,567
6 Sudan 52 43,849,234
7 Uganda 46 45,741,567
8 Algeria 39 43,851,786
9 Kenya 39 53,771,234
10 Tanzania 33 59,786,123

These countries simultaneously raised their rates of participation in higher education. Indeed, the countries that benefited most from integration with the world economy achieved the most marked increases in educational levels.

Besides, there is growing evidence that university education, through its role in empowering domestic constituencies, building institutions, and nurturing favourable regulatory frameworks and governance structures, is vital to a country’s efforts. This is to increase social capital and to promote social cohesion, which is proving to be an essential determinant of economic growth and development.

Benefits of Studying in an African University

Study and learn during a Different way
Often those studying in Africa will experience a completely new way of teaching. this will be daunting, but it’ll also open your mind to new ways of learning.

Opportunity to make unforgettable experiences
Study shows that folks are happier and feel more fulfilled once they spend on experience than once they buy new things. once you consider the items that bring you the foremost joy, they’re usually memorable experiences. you’ll get tons of that from studying in Africa

African Degrees are well respected It
If pursuing knowledgeable career is your goal, international education and knowledge on the CV will assist you stand out. it’ll also represent you as someone who is up for a challenge. Especially now that African universities are climbing the ranks in world university rankings

Opportunity to get unique ideas and opportunities
Most of the successful businesses in Africa and Asia were found out by people that gained international exposure and education. Econet, Celtel, IrokoTv, Jumia, and more. By studying in Africa, if you’re curious, you’ll find new ways to unravel a drag back home.

Opportunity to find out a replacement language
Studying during a country that speaks a special official language as yours is among the simplest ways to find out or brush up a replacement language. Imagine being close to communicate in German, French, or Mandarin. that would are available handy along your career path. Africa is diverse when it involves languages. All you’ve got to try to to is pick those that interest you the foremost .

Studying during a foreign country is different from tourism
Travel for a vacation is extremely different from settling during a foreign country for a yearlong study. you’ll get to experience your home of study for a more extended period and familiarize yourself with local knowledge like what tourist traps to avoid and the way to urge the foremost out of your new city.

Opportunity to experience the rich African culture
Yes, food. you only haven’t any idea about the variability of food that exists out there. you’ll never know until you venture out. you’ll even discover your new favourite.

Opportunity to require advantage of lower tuition fees
This, of course, depends on where you study in Africa. However, if you select a location in many parts of continental Europe, Asia, and Latin America , you’ll find it’s impossible to review at a highly reputed university without stepping into debt.

You will meet a various range of individuals
You will experience exposure to several differing types of individuals won’t only assist you to develop your people skills, but it’ll also offer you a firmer knowledge of others.

Enjoy international student discounts
Many famous Universities in Africa destinations offer student discounts for various activities, from transportation, bookstores to movie tickets and museums. you only need to spend wisely.

Opportunity to form lifelong friends
You will quickly develop the attitude that we are during this , along side other international students. this will end in lifelong friendships, even with the local students. you’ll not love every single person you meet, but the probabilities are that you’ll meet a minimum of one lifelong friend.

You will gain a more excellent knowledge of various cultures
As you observe and learn why people from different cultures do things the way they are doing , your emotional intelligence develops. you’ll learn to be less judgmental.

Opportunity to become spontaneous and adventurous
Being during a foreign environment ignites your adventurous nature. You tend to require to explore your new environment. Open your mind up to new experiences and sights and learn an excellent deal while having some fun.

Opportunity to explore together with your spare time
In between lectures and lab sessions, studying Africa should leave you with many time to explore. Whether you’re one for visiting iconic landmarks, trying new foods, or bartering at local markets, there’s sure to be a far better way of paying some time than scrolling through Facebook!

There is a robust involve strengthening universities and research within the new Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025. Its objectives include boosting postgraduate and post-doctoral education and growing competitive awards to nurture young academics, more international research cooperation, and expanding centres of excellence and institutional links.

Tertiary education and research are given more stress than in previous education statements, reflecting continental realization of their importance to growth and development.

The Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025, or CESA 16-25, is driven by a desire to realize quality education and training that gives the continent with “efficient human resources adapted to African core values and thus ready to achieve the vision and ambitions of the African Union.”

Strategic Objectives of African Universities
Revitalize the teaching profession to make sure quality and relevance in the least levels of education.
To build, rehabilitate, and support education infrastructure and develop policies that ensure a permanent stress-free and conducive learning environment for all to expand access to quality education in the least levels, including informal and non-formal settings.
Harness the capacity of ICT to enhance access, quality, and management of education and training systems.
Ensure acquisition of requisite knowledge and skills also as improved completion rates altogether groups through harmonization processes across all levels for national and regional integration.
Accelerate processes resulting in gender parity and equity.
Launch comprehensive and useful literacy programs across the continent.
Strengthen the science and arithmetic curricula in youth training and disseminate knowledge domain and culture in society.
Expand technical and vocational opportunities at both secondary and tertiary levels and strengthen linkages between the planet of labor and education and training systems.
Revitalize and expand tertiary education, research, and innovation to deal with continental challenges and promote global competitiveness.
Promote peace education and conflict prevention and determination in the least levels of education and for all age groups.
Improve management of education systems and build capacity for data collection, management, analysis, communication, and use.
Create a coalition of stakeholders to facilitate and support activities resulting from the implementation of CESA 16-25. Of importance to education is that the got to train well-qualified teachers and deliver continuous professional development.
Good university programs should integrate entrepreneurship and leadership training in their curriculum, in order that they produce graduates who have the soft-skills to play an impactful role in Africa’s economic transformation, and who begin not as job-seekers but as job creators. Eventually, aligning education to the stress of the market requires that we measure how successful universities fuse the lecture hall with the planet of labor .

Furthermore, the African countries with the foremost universities span across ten countries, from Uganda within the east to Nigeria within the west, Morocco within the north to South Africa at the southernmost tip of the continent.

In the University rankings, Two of South Africa’s universities feature within the top 200 of the worldwide rankings: the University of Cape Town is Africa’s top university, sitting at joint 136th position, while the University of Witwatersrand occupies the joint 194th spot.

Overall, Egypt and South Africa are the 2 best represented African countries within the ranking, with 20 and 10 universities each. Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa all have universities within the top 500 of the worldwide ranking. Finally, the ranking rates university performance using 13 different indicators; a number of which are measuring teaching, research, research impact, innovation, and international outlook.

In summary, variety is that the spice of life. Why not take that bold step towards gaining admission to review in Africa. YOUR SUCCESS MATTERS!

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How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

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How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

Today we are using generated company symbols to properly mark your social networks.
If you still do not have a logo and corporate identity, then our Logaster generator will always help to develop them quickly and efficiently.

Why should your business be represented on social networks?
Social networks are an integral part of the modern Internet, they have a huge audience and will become worthy platforms for promoting your brand. So, why does your company have to have pages on popular social networks?

Internet reputation management. Corporate social media accounts will help you post the most current, relevant and reliable information about the company, cover its activities from the best perspectives, which will positively affect your reputation;

Strengthen industry influence. Social networks are considered to be a powerful networking tool – creating useful links in the industry that interests you. Owing to this, you can quickly identify and collect useful information and connections for potential customers , associates, staff, investors;

Expanding audience reach. With the help of social networks, you will be able to significantly increase the number of points of contact with the target audience, a significant part of which may want to purchase your goods or services;

Improving customer loyalty. By regularly visiting your corporate accounts, you can work with customer reviews, complaints and suggestions. Prompt feedback will help you make your audience much more loyal and positive;

More effective search engine promotion. Conscientious maintenance of pages on social networks with frequent updating of unique content will significantly improve the position of your company’s website in search engine delivery (Google, Yandex);

Benefits for other marketing tools. Proper use of social media will bring an additional effect for solving other marketing tasks of your brand – from a corporate blog and electronic mailings to webinars or offline events.How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

We have therefore mentioned the principal reasons why you should build company accounts in common social networks.

More reasons can be found here.

What social networks should be made out?
The choice of the channel with which you can “reach out” to the target audience, and the competent design of the profile is an important and necessary marketing move.

The most popular among businesses in the CIS are sites such as Instagram, Facebook, VK, Odnoklassniki, YouTube. Here are some tips for choosing social networks for maintaining and promoting:

Which social networks should be emphasized largely depends on the subject of the project. For example, if your business is associated with any kind of creativity, then social networks such as YouTube (for creating video content), Instagram (photos of products, especially designer clothes, clothes, hand-made), SoundCloud (writing music) are best suited for its promotion.

If you have a typical company, VK and Facebook will provide the best response to the “basic” social networks. As for the Instagram service, it has proven itself for various areas of online business, including online stores (especially with goods for women), creative services, etc.

Closely monitor web analytics – it will help determine which services the largest number of visitors and purchases come to you from. By default, VK, Facebook, Odnoklassniki are considered the most useful among our entrepreneurs, followed by Twitter, Instagram and Youtube.

At the same time, we recommend not to “spray” on all available social networks, but to focus on those that lead major customers. It will be useful to study the pages of competitors, which can suggest some useful details. Of course, this advice is for those projects that already have a small traffic to the site.

You can also create corporate accounts in all specified social networks, arrange them, but only 2-3 of them are actively promoted and updated – the most effective for you. So you can save your time and at the same time not miss potential customers.

How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

A professional publishing and communication strategy for every channel is equally essential. For example, Facebook and VK are ideally suited for posting informational content (posts, articles, news), working with reviews, orders and customer requests, targeted advertising, etc.

In turn, Instagram ideally sells goods or services with photos, and on YouTube you can effectively post video reviews and presentations of your products, instructions.

Proper design of social networks – why is it so important?
It is not enough just to create company accounts in social networks, you also need to issue them in a high-quality manner. Proper branding plays a very important role, since any Internet user is now simply overloaded with information, especially in social networks. There is an opinion that an ordinary person sees hundreds of logos of various brands every day – both online and in reality.

Do not believe? Then just look back on the sides, go to your favourite sites and count the number of corporate symbols surrounding you.

Careful design of social networks will help to stand out against the background of numerous visual “spam”, and it will also provide your business with a number of advantages:

With it, you can attract the attention of users, help them better know your brand, highlight it against the background of symbols of other companies and competitors. The presence of a logo or other elements of corporate identity will allow the audience not to miss important news, promotions or other updates to your company;

You will be able to create a more holistic image of the company by branding social networks. Such sites are very important points of contact with customers, so the use of corporate identity will help you to remain consistent, while maintaining the integrity of your image in the eyes of the audience;

Branded content looks more attractive than regular photos, videos or text. With it, you can increase customer loyalty, gently advertise your brand, “accustom” them to your materials – as a result, they will respond positively to them by default.

As you can see, the competent design of social networks is of great importance for any enterprise, helping to establish a closer relationship with customers, which will positively affect the development of your business.

Social Media Branding Tips
So, you have developed a logo and corporate identity, created pages on social networks, defined their main goals (promotion of goods / services, work with reviews, etc.). Now is the time to proceed to the design of your accounts, following these tips:

Be consistent with the style of the pages, everywhere use the same fonts, color schemes, graphic elements, etc. Only in this way will you achieve that people will recognize your corporate colors even without a logo or company name;

The dimensions and other parameters of your logo should be adapted to the requirements of each individual social network. Do not use the logo of the same size for all sites, as it can be displayed there in cropped or stretched form. By the way, the Logaster service will help you immediately download various logo options of all necessary dimensions for popular social networks;

If the space on the avatar is limited, then it is better to use a simplified version of the logo, for example, without a text warehouse;

Pay special attention to the cover and photo (logo) of the account, because it is on them that the first look of each visitor is directed. It is important that they have the same style and color scheme with your corporate identity. You will be able to find a suitable caption for the theme of your business on photo stocks, or you can order it from a designer;

We recommend that you follow identical positioning and design when designing pages on different social networks. For example, if your logo on Facebook is in the lower right corner, then try to place it in about the same place and on other platforms (if possible);

You can also put any short text on the cover of your account – especially if it is really important / interesting information, for example, about a promotion, and you want users to see it first.

Having completed the design of the page, be sure to test it on all possible devices – PC, laptop, tablet, smartphone, etc. Make sure that all key elements look equally good at any screen resolution, not stretched or cropped. Any seeming trifle can significantly affect the reputation of your company and the loyalty of its audience.

Next, we will tell you how to upload your logo to the pages of popular social networks.

How to add an avatar (profile photo) on social networks
Below we consider the process of uploading a logo to Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Vkontakte, OK.ru, LinkedIn, YouTube and Pinterest. Make sure you have the right size logo versions.

Image sizes for social networks (2020):
Facebook
Image to external links: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 630 px
Cover: 820 x 312 px
Profile Photo: 170 x 170 px

In contact with
Image to external links: 537 x 240 px
Picture for post: 700 x 500 px
Profile photo: 200 x 500 px

Twitter
Tweet picture: 1024 x 675 px
Cover: 1500 x 500 px
Profile photo: 400 x 400 px

Instagram
Post picture: 1080 x 1080 px
Profile photo: 110 x 110 px

YouTube
Image over video: 1280 x 720 px
Channel cover: 2560 x 1440 px
Profile photo: 800 x 800 px

Pinterest
Picture for pin: 1000 x 1500 px
Profile photo: 165 x 165 px

Linkedin
Image to external links:: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 1200 px
Cover: 1584 x 768 px
Profile photo: 300 x 300 px

OK.ru
Picture for post: 1680 x 1680 px
Cover: 1340 x 320 px
Profile Photo: 190 x 190 px

How to upload an image
Facebook

First, make sure that you have a logo in PNG format of the right size – you can add it to your Facebook page.

How to add or change profile photo:

1. Log in to your Facebook account and go to your page.
2. Move the cursor over the place for the photo and click on the camera icon.
3. Select “Upload Photo”.
4. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. If necessary, the image can be cropped and arranged in accordance with the plan.
5. Click “Save.”

facebook min
How to add or change a cover:
1. Go to your page, hover over the cover image and click “Change Cover”.
2. Select Upload Photo.
3. Select the logo file and click Open. Position the image as you see fit.
4. Click Save.

Please note that although your profile photo is displayed on the user’s page as a square, in the news feed it takes the form of a circle. If you have a square logo, reduce its size so that the corners are not cut and it is not too crowded in a circle.

Twitter

File size requirements are listed here.
Note: unlike Facebook, where business accounts are created on the basis of personal accounts, Twitter needs to have a separate page for the company or project.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Twitter account and open your page by clicking on your name.
2. Click the Edit profile button on the right side of the page and click on your photo. Click Select Photo.
3. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. Position the logo as you see fit.
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.

How to add or change the image in the header:
1. Go to your page and click the “Edit Profile” button.
2. Click on the header and select the Add header option.
3. Select a file and click “Open.”
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.

In contact with

File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a VK group and community:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
If you do not have an avatar yet, the text “Upload a photo” will be highlighted in its place;
(if the image is already available, then just point it and the pop-up menu will offer you to update the photo).
2. Click on it and upload the logo;
3. Make sure that when reducing the avatar to a round version, your logo does not cease to be recognizable. To do this, select the desired area by clicking on “Change thumbnail”.

How to add or change cover art in a VK group and community:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Go to community settings;
3, Click on “Download” opposite “Community Cover;
4. Download the logo;
Make sure that the logo is not ridiculously cropped.

OK.ru

File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a group in Odnoklassniki:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Hover over the profile picture and click on “Add Image” from the pop-up menu;
3. Download the logo.

Instagram

File size requirements are listed here.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Instagram account from your phone. Open your profile by clicking on the corresponding icon.
2. Click on the profile photo and select “Upload Photo”. Select a file with a logo and press “Select”.
3. On the mobile device, click “Edit Profile” and select “Change Profile Photo”. After you select the file, click “Finish.”

instagram
LinkedIn

File size requirements are listed here.

How to add a logo to your LinkedIn company page:
1. On your profile page, click on the photo thumbnail and select “Change” in the “Company Page” tab.
2. Click the “Edit” button and click on the “Edit Page” line.
3. Scroll to the “Company Logo” section. Click the “Edit” button and add / change the logo. You can also change the location of the logo by dragging it to the desired location.
4. Click “Save.”

LinkedIn
YouTube

File size requirements are listed here and here.

How to add or change a profile photo (channel icon):
1. Log into your YouTube account.
2. Click on the line My Channel, located under the profile photo in the upper right.
3. Hover over an existing photo and click on the edit icon.
4. Click “Edit” and select the logo file. Position it as you see fit.

How to add or change channel background image:
1. Going to My channel, hover over the background image and click on the edit (or add) icon.
2. Download the file and see how it is displayed on various devices. Position it as you see fit.
3. Click “Select.”

Pinterest

File size requirements are listed here.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Pinterest account.
2. Click on the ellipsis at the top, then click on the “Settings” button. Scroll down to the Profile section.
3. Click “Change Image,” then select the logo file. Ra

arrange it as you see fit.
4. Click “Save Settings.”

Useful services for designing social networks
We have prepared a small list of services that will be useful to you when designing social networks. Bookmark them so you don’t lose:

Logaster – creating and downloading logos optimized for the requirements of social networks.
Crello – create designs for social media covers.
Sproutsociale – optimization of the size of finished images to the requirements of social networks.
Pablo.buffer.com – search for images for covers and overlay text on them.
Pixabay is a free photo stock for finding cover pictures.
Pexels is a bank of free photos for creating covers and posts on social networks.
Unsplash is another photo stock for social networks.
Jaymantri – abstract pictures for creating cover or post backgrounds.
Designspiration – search for inspiration.
Fonts.google.com – a collection of free fonts.
Coolors.co – collections of color schemes that will be useful in the design of posts and covers.
Google.com/test/mobile-friendly – check page optimization for mobile devices.

Representative offices in social networks significantly stimulate the development of the company, making it possible to increase its recognition and increase the number of points of contact with customers. Following these tips, you will create really powerful marketing tools that will help you attract many potential customers from popular social media.

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