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General Literature

Analysis of A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Vivian Hansberry

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Analysis of  a raising in the sun by lorraine vivian hansberry
Analysis of  a raising in the sun by lorraine vivian hansberry

Analysis of a raising in the sun by lorraine vivian hansberry

A Raisin in the Sun by Vivian Lorraine Hansberry
A Raisin in the Sun by Lorraine Hansberry is a play that displays housing discrimination in Chicago during the 1950s. Housing discrimination was partially an effect of the Great Migration. This was an event during the 1950s that resulted in about six million African Americans migrating from the south to the north, Midwest, and West regions of the United States. This caused the population of black people in major northern cities to increase rapidly. They are then only able to live in certain neighbourhoods, which keeps their communities segregated.
Analysis
According to Lorraine Hansberrys stage directions at the beginning of the play, the action occurs sometime between the end of World War II and the 1950s. The play is set in an urban ghetto and deals with the problems encountered by a poor black family as it tries to cope with the realities of life on Chicagos South Side. It reveals the devastating effects of poverty and oppression on the African American family. Even before the play begins, Hansberrys stage directions, both in tone and substance, suggest the extent of that devastation. The furnishings in the Younger familys apartment, she says, are tired, and the once loved couch upholstery has to fight to show itself from under acres of dollies and couch covers. The very environment in which the Youngers live mirrors the struggle for survival that is waged daily in this household.
As the play progresses, the frustration born of this poverty and oppression mounts. The anger and hostility that it spawns begin to erode the foundations of the family structure. This erosion begins early in the play, exhibiting itself in the strained relations between Walter Lee and his wife Ruth as they argue over the disposition of money coming from insurance on Walters father. Walter Lee wants to use the money to purchase a liquor store. He is convinced that such a business venture will be his ticket out of the ghetto. His marriage threatens to collapse under the constant bickering. Ruth, having just discovered that she is pregnant, contemplates abortion to avoid bringing a new life into this hostile, poverty-ridden environment.
As the family anticipates the arrival of the insurance check, the tension grows and Walter becomes more agitated. He is resentful of his sister, whose medical-school expenses, he thinks, will consume money that he might otherwise use to finance his liquor store. When the check finally arrives and he finds that Mama Younger has used part of the money to make a down payment on a new house and plans to use the rest for Beneathas medical-school expenses, Walter explodes, spending his days driving around town and his nights brooding in the local bar.
When Mama begins to understand the depth of damage to Walter Lees feelings and manhood, she turns over the rest of the money to him to do with as he pleases. She makes one request, however: that he put aside the money for Beneathas education. Still pursuing his dream, however, Walter gives Willie, one of his friends, the money to purchase the liquor store for him. Willie absconds with the money, dashing Walter Lees hopes and dreams as well as those of the entire Younger family.
In an effort to recover his losses, Walter Lee decides to accept the money that has been offered earlier by their prospective white neighbors as a bribe to keep the Younger family out of an all-white neighborhood. In the last scene of the play, however, under the watchful eye of his son, Walter finds the courage to reject the offer. The family takes its leave of its ghetto apartment and heads for its new home and anticipated better life.
Form and Content
Written just as the Civil Rights movement began to get underway, this play (and the motion picture made from it in 1960) made an important statement regarding race relations. Lorraine Hansberry, coming as she did from an affluent African American family, had experienced discrimination in her own childhood when her father moved the family out of the Chicago ghetto to a home in Englewood, Illinois. She also had strong opinions about the position of black women in American society, who are represented to a great extent by the character of Beneatha in this play.
Additionally, Langston Hughess poem A Dream Deferred must be considered seminal in understanding the play. In it the poet asks, What happens to a dream deferred? Does it dry up like a raisin in the sun?. . . or does it explode? and Hansberry has successfully dramatized various human reactions to such deferment. The time in the play spans only a few weeks, but the dreams held by each of the characters have roots that reach far back. As the play begins, Lena is expecting a check of $10,000 as beneficiary of her husbands life insurance, and each character sees that money as the key that will unlock the future.
Most volatile about getting control of the money is Walter Lee, who wants to invest (with two other men) in a liquor store and become an independent businessman. He represents the dream that is ready to explode. In the first scene, he makes his attitude very clear when he asks his wife Ruth to persuade his mother to give him the money, and he becomes very upset with her when she insists that it is Lenas money to do with as she likes.
Walter Lees frustration with his life causes him to project his predicament on his wife, as a representative of all black women. As he puts it, Man say I got to change my life. Im choking to death, baby! And his woman sayyour eggs is getting cold!
Lena Younger, knowing that she and her husband never realized their dreams, has accepted life as God has willed it. In the words of the poem, she has crusted and sugared overlike a syrupy sweet. Because of the insurance money, however, she believes that she has been given a second chance at her dream of improving the lives of everyone in her family by moving out of the ghetto. Furthermore, because she is very religious, she disapproves of the idea of a liquor store for her son. Representing the older black woman who heads the family, Lena is a loving but quietly controlling matriarch.
The early-morning scene that opens the play illustrates clearly the physical conditions in which the Youngers live. The apartment is clean but very crowded; Travis sleeps on a couch in the living room, and the family shares a bathroom with other tenants in the building. Quite soon, Ruth reveals that she is pregnant, and her con-sideration of an abortion strengthens Lenas resolve regarding the use of the money.
Beneathas dream of becoming a doctor is quite concrete; she has had it since adolescence. Unlike her brother, she does not solicit her mothers financial assistance. Representing the newly emancipated black woman (in the image of the playwright), Beneatha gives the impression that she will not marry for security or surrender her free-thinking ideas. At one point, Lena actually slaps Beneatha and insists that she affirm her belief in God, but it is clear that the young woman acquiesces only out of respect for her mother. She will march to the beat of her own drummer.
Symbolism, Imagery, Allegory
Plant
The plant that Mama keeps near the apartments sole window is barely surviving because it lacks adequate nourishment. Sound like anyone else we know? Yet she is completely dedicated to the plant and lovingly tends it every single day in the hopes that it will one day be able to flourish. Gosh. Sound like her behavior towards anyone else? This is by far the plays most overt symbol; the plant acts as a metaphor for the family.
Sunlight
Hansberry writes about sunlight and how the old apartment has so little of it. The first thing Ruth asks about in Act Two, Scene One is whether or not the new house will have a lot of sunlight. Sunlight is a familiar symbol for hope and life, since all human life depends on warmth and energy from the sun.
Cockroaches, rats and other lovely creatures.
These creatures heavily reinforce the Younger familys undesirable living situation.
 SETTING
Where It All Goes Down
The Youngers’ apartment in the slums of Chicago’s Southside, 1950s
The Apartment
Hansberry welcomes us into the tiny apartment of the Younger family. This place is really cramped, especially with five people living in it. On stage we see the kitchen, which is so small that it’s more like a closet. Most of the play’s action goes down in the living room, which also serves as the dining room and Travis’s makeshift bedroom.
There’s access to two bedrooms on opposite sides of the apartment (one room shared by Mama and Beneatha, the other by Walter and Ruth). The bathroom is out in the hall; the Youngers are forced to share it with their neighbors, the Johnsons. So, yeah, you get the point this place is small!
The incredibly close quarters of the Youngers’ apartment definitely adds to the high tensions that run throughout the play. It’s a wonder the family doesn’t fight more than they already do, considering how on top of each other they’re forced to live.
The tininess of the apartment definitely has a major effect on the action of the play early on. When Ruth finds out she’s pregnant, she seriously considers having an abortion. If the baby is born, there just won’t be anywhere for it to sleep. This thought is just too much for Mama, however. When she realizes what her daughter-in-law is considering, she marches straight out and purchases a new setting for her family to live in the house in Clybourne Park.
Be sure to look at set design pictures in order to better visualize the space. To see how professional Scene Designers have brought the Younger apartment to life onstage, look online. (Or better yet, attend a theatre production.) Here’s an example.
Southside Chicago
The neighborhood which the Youngers live in is particularly significant because, during the 1950s, it was primarily a poor neighborhood inhabited mainly by African Americans. Many blacks ended up in Chicago’s Southside after migrating from the South, looking for work and seeking to escape racial discrimination.
Things were definitely better in the North on a lot of levels, but blacks still faced many challenges because of their race. As A Raisin in the Sun shows, white society made it very hard for African Americans to escape the cramped, vermin-infested apartment buildings of Chicago’s Southside. There may not have been any law officially segregating the city, but unofficial segregation was still going on.
The 1950s
The exact year is never specified, but the play takes place in the 1950s. Probably, the most significant thing to think about as far as the time period goes is the status of race issues. A lot of progress had been made by this point in American history, but as A Raisin in the Sun  shows, there was still a long, long way to go.
The 1950s was a sort of turning point in America, the decade that brought the beginning of the Civil Rights Movement. During much of the 1950s, the South was segregated by racist Jim Crow laws. And, as we point out in our entry on the Southside, many African Americans faced unofficial racial barriers in the North. The racial tensions of the time period definitely fuel the conflicts of the play.
Beneatha’s character, in particular, is grounded in the time period, as she deals with very timely socio-political issues. In a way, though, she is totally ahead of her time. We have no doubt that if Beneatha was still in the US around in the 1960s she would definitely be marching with Dr. King. Beneatha is also head of her time with the idea that African Americans should be more in touch their African roots. This became a major movement among black Americans later on in the ’60s. With the character of Beneatha, Hansberry predicted (and possibly helped to spark) some major movements in American history.
 GENRE
Family Drama, Realism, African-American Literature
A Raisin in the Sun was part of a broader movement to portray the lives of ordinary, working-class African-Americans. The genre of Realism captures ordinary life, and A Raisin in the Sun definitely fits this description. Dreams of buying a house, making some money in business, and going to medical school are dreams shared by millions of working-class Americans. And if you cant figure out why this play is a Family Drama, then we seriously screwed up our job.
TONE
Take a story’s temperature by studying its tone. Is it hopeful? Cynical? Snarky? Playful?
Alternates between Ironic and Somber
Life is rough for the Younger family, and Hansberry’s use of somber tone is appropriate to that. At the same time, however, she injects a heavy dose of irony and sarcasm. Did you notice how Hansberry writes “Drily” in a lot of the line directions? (Wait, is that just “dryly” spelled a different way? Yes, it is.) The Youngers have a bite in how they talk; there’s a fun tongue-in-cheek kind of feel, especially in Walter and Beneatha’s sibling chats.
One of the single most ironic moments in the play, however, might be when Mr. Lindner explains that the people he represents have worked hard to achieve their dreams. In that single scene, the characters don’t notice the irony so much as the audience does. It’s Hansberry at her finest exposing how the American Dream can ring hollow for black Americans.

 

General Literature

Word Stress Rules In English

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Word stress rules in english
Word stress rules in english

Word stress rules in english

What is Word Stress?

In English, We do not state each syllable with the same intensity or consistency. In a single word, we focus more on ONE syllable. We state one syllable noisily (enormous, solid, significant) and the various syllables unobtrusively.

How about we take 3 words: photo, picture taker and photographic. Do they sound similar when spoken? No. Since we emphasize (stress) ONE syllable in each word. Furthermore, it isn’t generally a similar syllable. So the “shape” of each word is extraordinary.

This post is going to focus on how to speak clearly in English using words stress correctly. This is one of the most important parts of English pronunciation. Many of my students worry about speaking English clearly and they’re afraid that their accent makes it hard for other people to understand them. But most of the time the problem isn’t an accent. It’s word stress.

Importance Of Word Stress

Word stress is essential for sounding natural in English. It’s part of our natural rhythm. When we speak in this lesson today, you’re going to learn exactly what words stress is, how you can use it, and at the end, I’m going to share with you how to pronounce some of the most challenging words in English and be sure that you’re doing it correctly.

So let’s start with what exactly is word stress and why is it so important?

Word Stress Definition

Native speakers’ ears are trained to listen for very specific sounds, and if a sound in a word isn’t correct, if it’s not stressed in the right way, it means that either they don’t understand the word correctly or they don’t understand it at all. Now to understand words stress, there’s one thing you must know.

You have to know what a syllable is. All of our words have much smaller parts and these are called syllables. A word might have only one syllable like a dog, cat, walk, drive, desk. Even words like strengths or stretched have only one syllable. They’re longer words, but there are just one syllable.

Syllables

Syllables are all about the different sounds of a word, not the length of a word. And here is a great trick for knowing each syllable in a word, syllables are usually made up of one vowel sound and our chin drops every time you use a syllable.

I want you to do something with me. I want you to put your hand under your chin and I want you to say the word dog. Dog. Do you notice that your chin moves down one time when you say the word dog? That’s because there’s only one syllable. Let’s try another one. Again, I want you to put your hand under your chin and this time I want you to say the word identification.

If we slow this word way down, I want you to count how many syllables are i-den-ti-fi-ca-tion. What do you feel? How many times did you feel your chin moved down? The number should be six and that is a syllable every time your chin moves with one of those vowel sounds, it is a part of a word, a syllable. Now that you know what syllables are all about, let’s go back and talk about why these are so important for word stress.

In English, we do not stress every syllable in a word. Instead, we stress one syllable. Let me show you the difference. Identification. I-den-ti-fi-ca-tion. Do you notice that stress? My voice goes up. It’s louder and it’s clear when I say -ca. If I stressed every syllable equally, it would sound like this:i-den-ti-fi-cation. For example, I need your identification.

That doesn’t sound natural at all because it isn’t natural. We do not stress every syllable in a word. Let’s try another example. I’m going to listen to a record today in that sentence, I’m using the record as a noun, but this word could also be a verb and in that case, I need to change which syllable I stress. For example, I’m going to record some music today. Record the syllable.

Stress has changed and as a result, native speakers immediately recognize it as a verb. Several words in English can be both nouns and verbs, but we have to be careful about how we say them. We have to change which syllable we stress, and I’m going to share the most important ones with you in a moment. Now that you know what word stress is and why it’s important, it’s time to figure out which syllable should you stress in a word. And there are a few ways that you can do that and here’s where I’m going to give you a really helpful trick for those long scary words in English.

The tricks for Stressing long scary Words

The first thing that you can do is listen to native speakers carefully and see if you can hear which syllable is stressed in a word. The next thing that you can do is you could use a dictionary to help you as well. In a dictionary, you’ll always find the phonetic spelling of a word and there is an apostrophe before the stressed syllable.

So if we look at the word refrigerator, we can see that there’s an apostrophe just before fridge refrigerator. Now the truth is, you don’t always have time to look in a dictionary and sometimes even if you’relistening carefully, it’s hard to identify which syllable a native speaker stresses. So I’ve got three tricks to help you.

Number 1

For most nouns and adjectives that, have two syllables, you will stress the first syllable. Let’s look at some examples. Climate, parent, knowledge, flippant, spacious, basic, object. If you noticed in each of those examples, I said the first syllable louder, longer, higher and clear, and a great way for you to practice is simply listening to me say those and immediately repeat what you hear. After you do that. Let’s move on.

Number 2

We just talked about nouns and adjectives with two syllables, but now let’s talk about verbs with two syllables. Most of the time with verbs that have two syllables, you’re going to stress the second syllable. Let’s look at some examples. Become, embrace, reflect, forgive, adore, object. Did you notice that last one? An object is a noun, to object is a verb and we’ve switched which syllable gets stressed. An object, to object.

This is exactly like that example of record and a record that we talked about earlier, so let’s look at a few more examples of words that could be verbs or nouns and how we need to change the stress on an increase to increase, decrease to decrease, a refund to refund, an invite to invite, a project to project. Again, I want you to practice by listening to those and repeating what you hear. It’s a great way to develop that pattern and become more familiar, more comfortable with word stress.

Number 3

The third and final rule today, which is how to identify which syllable to stress and long words like I’m going to say each of these words out loud and I want you to listen carefully to see if you notice any patterns with these words. Administration, exploitation,communication, interruption,accusation, intervention,abbreviation,extension incomprehension.

All right? What did you notice? Did you find a pattern of which syllable I said louder, longer, higher and clear? Do you notice that all of these words end with the sound -tion/-sion: incomprehension, administration, exploitation interruption? They all have the -tion/-sponsored and if you listen carefully, I’m stressing the syllable just before -tion/-soon.Listen carefully. Administration, interruption communication, exploitation in comprehension, stressing the right syllable, and those longer words will ensure that you’re communicating much more clearly and that you sound more natural in English.

Word Stress Test

Now I’m going to test you. I want you to choose the word from this list. Create a sentence, share your sentence with me in the comments below, but I want you to tell me which syllable in that word that you should stress. Now, if you found this post helpful to you, be sure to give it a thumbs up,

share it with friends, and be sure to subscribe to this blog so that you never miss a future confident English lesson.I’ve also got a playlist available for you with additional lessons on how to sound more natural and speak clearly in English. With that, thank you so much for joining me. Have a wonderful week and I’ll see you next time for your Confident English lesson.

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General Literature

Javier Marías – A Heart So White

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Javier marías – a heart so white

One of Spain’s best writer today by drumroll please none other than Roberto bolaño my favorite authors Javier Matias is a very famous Spanish author and translator who published his first novel at 19. Javier’s father was a Spanish author and philosopher Julio Matias who was a student of Ortega y Gasset at one point his father was imprisoned for a little bit and then banned for teaching after opposing Franco Matias, who wrote a story called The life and death of Marcelino.

Javier marías – a heart so white

Javier marías – a heart so white

This was included in a collection of his stories called while the women are sleeping and he wrote on that particular story when he was 14. This is the first novel by him that I’ve read and I think it’s superb. I mean it’s marvelous it’s something to marvel at that just in its elegance and sophistication and its style it is really he’s just got Pedro almodóvar would have done a magnificent adaptation.I mean straight arrangements you know that whole tone of the skin I live in it would be.

A heart so white

Published in 1992 is about a man his wife his father and his father’s previous wives, it’s an elegant sophisticated Spanish philosophical of mystery.

A man is haunted by the actions of his father so not his past necessarily but his father’s past Javier Melia’s is a Spanish author and translate who was born in Madrid but also spent a little bit of time over here in this states. Vakious is an enviable astute writer the title a heart so white is referencing a line from Shakespeare’s Macbeth which I’m afraid I haven’t yet read I know my hands are of your colour but I shamed to wear a heart so white which was said by Lady Macbeth to make that after he has committed murder, his hands are red with blood the main character of the novel is a translator elect Matthias, he knows more than anyone that you can’t unhear something after it’s said you can’t forget something after it’s said and sometimes it may be better if nothing was said so how much should be really told shouldn’t we tell the truth if it’s just going to hurt somebody how much does it actually help to know the truth and since memory is fallible what is the truth really?

The book opens with a family gathering, I think it’s like lunch or something and this woman gets up from the table walks into the bathroom takes out a gun and shoots herself in the heart committing suicide the opening of the book is one of the most masterfully crafted introductions into a sombre expansive gorgeous meditation on life love marriage secrets impermanence death and the inescapable consequences of past actions, the woman who killed herself is the second wife of the narrator’s father Ron’s. A man with a shadowy past kind of a dandy works in the art world worked at one time for the Prado in Madrid, but yeah he has a shadowing past is kind of sketchy as we discover that she is actually the second of his wives to have died, his son the narrator the protagonists grew up thinking that she was the only one, the first it’s that classic question is it better to tell the truth or will that just do more harm so for better or worse semi intentionally yet also sort of unintentionally.

He embarks on a journey to learn more to discover what really happened along with his wife I just don’t want to tell you what happens of course you know because it just builds up to it magnificently you know it just builds and builds and builds and then it hits and it’s just you know he seems to just have it like in his blood this developed sense a narrative you know I don’t know what it is I don’t know if it’s like the past brilliant authors working through him or something you know I mean he seemed so well-read and also he has that quality of authors who are no longer around he has that intelligence and maturity of authors from the past ol older authors you know it’s like something that I never come across but I also don’t read a lot of modern authors so this again yeah do that but I’ve known he’s got like this is deep these deep roots some sort of where is just a genius maybe it was what it is money has frequently uses repetition to connect the thoughts ideas and situations in this man’s life it’s like something happens and then there’s this mental or philosophical kind of meandering or dig up the digression you know sort of gets lost in thought and some anecdotes are brought up and then we kind of come back to the narrative but then we go off again it’s like taking cigarette breaks in the middle of the novel to kind of like drifted the thought but you’re traveling along with her you know maybe that was probably actually occurring well he wrote this he smokes a lot I think he like didn’t go to a talk at Oxford because he he would have to step outside and smoke or something like that I mean I think he spent some time at Oxford so it’s not like a huge deal that’s sort of funny that he passed on it because he wanted to smoke when he wanted to smoke and where he wanted to I can respect that ambiguity is also a recurring theme the idea that no matter the choices made the result eventually is the same whether you do or don’t do something you know the fear of missing out just sort of inconsequential on a long enough timeline at the end of a life or history or time.

Everything is nullified what happens becomes equivalent to what didn’t I know he’s a fan of Thomas Bernhard and you can you can tell after reading passages like this one which I enjoyed a lot Thomas Barnard I’m gonna read something else by him he’s funny sometimes I have the feeling that nothing that happened is habitants because nothing happens without interruption nothing lasts orders or a ceaselessly remembered and even the most monotonous and routine of existences by its apparent repetitiveness gradually cancels itself out negates itself until nothing is anything and no one is anyone they were before and the week wheel of the world is pushed along by forgetful beings who hear and see and know what has not said never happens is unknowable and unverifiable what takes place is identical to what doesn’t take place what we dismiss are allowed to slip bias is identical to what we accept and sees what we experience identical to what we never try and yet we spend our lives in a process of choosing and rejecting and selecting and drawing a line to separate those identical things and make of our story in a unique story that we can remember and that can be told we pour all our intelligence and our feelings and our enthusiasm into the task of discriminating between things that will all be made equal if they haven’t already bitten and that’s why we’re so full of regrets and lost opportunities of confirmations and reaffirmation and opportunities grasped when the truth is that nothing is affirmed, and everything is constantly in the process of being lost or perhaps there never was anything the word nihilism seems so cheap and dusty to describe the stance taken by matthias because for all the sadness and tragedy and maybe cynicism and negativity or pessimism found within that passage somehow matthias never comes off as such you know as cynical or negative or not nihilistic somehow despite writing things such as that he communicates the fascinating mysterious profound beauty of life the possibilities but also the guarantee of the inevitable collapse of everything but it’s more of a beautiful drift into an immense unknown that has suggested that’s much of what life seems like in his novels this beautiful drift into an immense unknown memory is fallible but fiction is definitive

He’s great he reminds me of he has a little bit of the demeanor of Jorge Mele bar-kays but regarding fiction you know it’s funny because you’re saying something you’re writing something that didn’t happen but definitively and that’s the way it is unquestionably because he wrote it that way that’s how it was written whereas in real life sure you could say something happened a certain way but are we really certain that’s how it happened now because everybody can refute it you know everybody can challenge that you know that’s not how it happened.

Nadia says one of the reasons we write and read novels and fiction in general is that it can’t be denied by anyone it’s interesting because you have that kind of like foundation when you write fiction you have this structure muddiness has never been married yet so much of the novel focuses on what happens when you’re married both positive and negative his ideas on the subject are fascinating I mean really for not having been married himself he’s very you know he’s very observant it’s eerily so you know Matias has never married but he often writes about the institution in his fiction usually as a crucible for his favorite conflicting themes our need to share confidences and the perils of saying too much that was from The New Yorker so much in the book is wrapped up in the idea of language of the Train ideas that can’t be ignored Mateus said I’ve never been interested in what some people called naturalism or some people call realism. I don’t worry very much about something that occasionally hasn’t been pointed out to me as a possible flaw, many of the narrators and characters speak in a very similar way even in dialogue. I’m not interested in using differentiated voices not even in dialogue it must be believable but that’s all I think on the contrary that it is a courtesy on the part of the author to give the reader something which is interesting and if possible intelligent I can’t bear very much the kind of dialogue you often find in many novels in which two non intelligent people are saying not intelligent things four pages on end.

So for an example of intelligent people saying intelligent things in hearts of white one of the greatest scenes in the book the scene the scene where I really realized I was reading a master is where the narrator mistranslates the words spoken by two politicians in front of the woman who has not yet his wife doing so intentionally to see how she’ll react so this is a set up you know he’s a high profile translator and so he’s at this event with these two politicians speaking to one another and I think they’re based off of I read it somewhere I think I’m not quite sure I think they’re based off of Margaret Thatcher and Felipe Gonzalez but I’m not I’m not certain but this woman comes in – well he’s an interpreter excuse me he’s and he’s interpreting so he’s saying he’s translating the words and speaking them aloud as they’re talking to one another so they can understand each other and this woman this translator comes in his future wife to verify that what he is saying is accurate to keep an eye on him you know if he if he messes up she’s supposed to say something she’s supposed to call him on it that’s her job so she’s sitting by him and he’s doing his job but he starts miss translating the dialogue that these two politicians are having to make it more interesting and he starts off kind of small at first but then he like ramps up and then he just like goes to town he starts just like putting these very interesting philosophical ideas in their conversation and but so they both think that they’re actually having this really profound dialogue you know and it’s it’s terrific it’s sort of an act of I mean it’s he’s kind of coming on to her right he is because she doesn’t stop it it’s an extremely romantic scene it’s also very funny.

I mean it’s just so brilliant scene suddenly what would be drive small talk takes on profound significance as he orchestrates this intelligent conversation between these two politicians though it’s his future wife’s job to immediately correct him she doesn’t and this risky intimate action begins their relationship everything ties together but it’s not as if he had it all planned out in the beginning on the contrary you can feel the sense of discovery for the narrator and you know for you the reader but it seems to have been that way for him as well when he was writing the novel you know he’s writing to find out what happens we’re piecing the mystery together along with the author discovering the patterns and connections in the mystery of life but just like the character as well as us.

I imagine the author is left with far more questions and answers because just as in life nothing is resolved it might be the call to prayer so I moved to a Muslim neighborhood Muslim and polish neighborhood so the bells you heard earlier are from a Catholic polish cathedral and that would be the call to prayer so I hear both I love my neighborhood better than food it’s a hell of a book so who should read it anyone who enjoys for Hezbollah no Juan Rulfo Faulkner and in finally Shakespeare who I have not read enough of pick this one up it’s astoundingly beautiful it’s one of my absolute favorite books of all time better than food if there’s anything I mean it’s better than everything I mean it is a magnificent book I absolutely loved it. If you enjoyed this please subscribe if you haven’t already .

I hope this made your day better take care and I’ll talk to you soon have a good day.

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General Literature

what is concord? Subject-Verb Agreement (Rules and Examples)

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What is concord? subject-verb agreement (rules and examples)

what is concord?

What is concord? subject-verb agreement (rules and examples)

The word concord is derived from the Latin for agreement. ‘concord’ in everyday speech, it means ‘agreement or harmony between people or groups’
In grammar, concord refers to the way that a word has a form appropriate to the number or gender of the noun or pronoun it relates to. For example, in ‘She hates it’, there is concord between the singular form of the verb and the singular pronoun ‘she’.

Some linguists use the terms concord and agreement interchangeably, although traditionally, concord is used about the proper relationship between adjectives and the nouns they modify, while agreement refers to the proper relationship between verbs and their subjects or objects.

There are many grammatical challenges that confront ESL learners on the issue of Concord and various questions arise on how to conform to the rules of grammaticality. Which type of subject goes with which type of verb? Is it possible to have a plural subject go with a singular verb? How does a plural verb look like? Does a collective noun take a singular or plural verb? If two entities refer to one and the same person, do we use a singular or plural verb?

Subject-Verb Concord

Subject-verb concord is when the subject of a sentence and the verb of a sentence agree i.e when they have the same number and person. Here, if the subject of the sentence is singular, the verb must also be singular. If the subject is plural, the verb must be plural as well.

Rules of Subject-Verb Agreement

1. A singular subject requires a singular verb. Look at these examples:

  • The committee meets here every Thursday. (singular)
  • The crowd is getting angry. (singular)
  • The jury has finally reached a decision. (singular)
  • He does this regularly. (singular)
  • The girl loves to sing. (singular)
  • The list of items is on the desk. (singular)

2. A plural subject requires a plural verb. Examine these examples:

  • Basketballs roll across the floor.
  • These clothes are too small for me.
  • Dollar bills were scattered on the floor.

Meanwhile, some plural subjects call for singular verbs:

  • Fifty dollars is too much to pay for that dress.
  • Twenty seconds is all you get before I scream.

3. A compound singular subject takes plural verb as illustrated in the following sentences:

  • Sugar and flour are needed for the recipe.
  • Neither my dad nor my brothers know how to ski.
  • Pepperoni and cheese are great on a pizza.
  • Corned beef and cabbage is a traditional meal in Ireland. (popular usage)
  • The creator and producer is arriving soon. (both refer to the same person)

4. Compound plural subjects take plural verb as illustrated in the sentences below:

  • Dolphins and elephants are highly intelligent creatures.
  • Eating, sleeping, and reading are enjoyable activities.
  • Both men and women enjoy yoga.
  • Chocolate and strawberry are my two favourite flavours of ice cream.
  • Furniture and paper are two uses for wood.
  • Roses, gardenias, and jonquils bloom in Beatrice’s garden.

However, there are unusual cases to some of these patterns when it comes to the subject-verb agreement. Let us study some of these exclusions:

Exclusion 1

When any of these words: with, along with, together with, as well as, in addition to, including, no less than, etc. joins a compound subject, the form of the verb is singular. That is, when we replace ‘and’ in Pattern 4 with any of the words listed above, the appropriate verb form is singular. See the following examples:

  • The man with his wife is here.
  • The boy together with his sister is attending the party.
  • The husband, as well as his wife, was arrested.
  • The goat in addition to the cow has disappeared.
  • The goalkeeper no less than the defenders is to blame for the goal.

Exclusion 2

When a compound subject joined by ‘and’ gives the impression of a unit or when the two singular subjects refer to the same person or thing, we use the singular verb as we have in the following:

  • Bread and butter is his favourite meal.
  • His wife and greatest admirer gives him sound counsel.
  • Paul’s friend and boss is very pleasant.
  • The President and Commander-in-Chief of the armed forces has arrived.
  • Rice and beans is good for lunch.

Exclusion 3

When we connect a compound subject (two or more singular subjects) with any of these words, or, either…or, neither…nor, not, but, not only, but also, we use the singular verb. Look at the following examples:

  • John or Joe is going to the farm.
  • Either John or Joe is to blame.
  • Neither the boy nor the girl has a good report.
  • Not the husband but the wife was given the award.
  • Not only the teacher but also the student likes the beautiful building.

But when one of the subjects joined by any of the above items (the correlatives) differ in number; in other words, if one is singular and the other one is plural, the verb agrees in number with the nearer noun or subject. This is the principle of proximity. See the following examples:

  • Neither the thieves nor their leader was arrested.
  • Neither the leader nor the thieves were arrested.
  • Not only the boy but his friends were present at the game.

Exclusion 4

A singular subject followed by a plural modifier requires a singular verb. Examples

  • The reaction of the students was unexpected.
  • The leader of the armed bandits is to be convicted today.
  • A list of the successful applicants is out already.

Subject-Verb Agreement: collective nouns

We often use singular nouns that refer to groups of people (for example: team, government, committee) as if they were plural. This is because we often think of the group as people, doing things that people do (eating, wanting, feeling etc). In such cases, we use a plural verb. (We also then need to make sure that other words agree – they instead of it, who instead of which.)

Singular:

  • The new company is the result of a merger.
  • An average family consists of four people.
  • The committeewhich was formed in 2012, is made up of four men and four women.

Plural:

  • The committee have asked for sandwiches for lunch. They have to leave early.
  • My familywho do not see me often, have asked me home for Christmas.
  • The team hope to win next time.

However, persistence is important in the use of the accompanying pronoun referents such as it or them.

Exception

Collective nouns followed by ‘of’ and a plural noun in such phrases as a collection of paintings, a pride of lions, a flock of sheep, etc. take a singular verb in Standard English. Examples include:

  • A flock of lamb is in the garden.
  • A collection of paintings is up for auction tomorrow.
  • Do you know that a case of tools has gone missing from the hospital?
  • A host of angelic voices sings regularly in the concert.
  • A swarm of bees is difficult to control.

Similarly the phrase ‘one of’ plus a plural noun such as teachers, babies, children, carpenters, etc. takes a singular verb. Examples include:

  • One of the instructors likes rice and beans.
  • You can call him that one of the girls is here.
  • One of the children does not like biscuits.

Indefinite Pronouns

Indefinite pronouns such as each, every, everybody, anyone, nobody, no one, none, etc. take a singular verb.

Examples:

  • Somebody ate my sandwich!
  • Everyone says she is beautiful inside and out.
  • No one wants to hear about my health problems.
  • Either choice has its advantages.

Auxiliary Verbs

Auxiliary (or Helping) verbs are used together with a main verb to show the verb’s tense or to form a negative or question. The most common auxiliary verbs are have, be, and do.

  • Does Sam write all his own reports?
  • The secretaries haven’t written all the letters yet.
  • Terry is writing an e-mail to a client at the moment.

Numerals or Plural Numbers

Plural numbers take a singular verb when we use them in a phrase to indicate a sum or a unit.

Examples include:

  • Four years is the tenure of the president.
  • Five million naira is a great deal of money to carry around.
  • eight percent is good interest.
  • Forty hours is the normal work week in Nigeria.
  • Fifteen minutes is enough for a coffee break.

Conventional Plural Words

Some nouns which are plural in form but singular in meaning take a singular verb. Examples of such words include: news, measles, mumps, calculus, rickets, billiards, molasses, dizziness, semantics, trousers, scissors, etc.

Consider the following sentences in which we have such manifestations:

  • No news is good news.
  • Phonetics is an interesting subject.
  • His whereabouts is a secret.
  • Statistics is not my favorite subject.
  • Mathematics is a technical subject.

Pronoun/Antecedent Agreement

A pronoun must agree in number, gender, and case with its antecedent. What this statement means is that:

  1. A pronoun replacing a noun must agree in number as the noun it replaces.
  1. A pronoun replacing a noun must be masculine if the noun is masculine; feminine if the noun is feminine and neuter if the noun is neuter.
  1. A subject pronoun replaces a subject noun while an objective pronoun replaces a noun in the objective case too.

Let us expatiate on the positions above with illustrative examples:

With number:

  • The teacher told the girl to write her
  • The judges delivered their judgment this morning.
  • The man stood his ground even though he was wrong.

With gender:

  • The lady sang so well that the audience gave her a standing ovation.
  • My father is so strict that we did not dare to disobey him.
  • When an old woman speaks, we should listen to her.
  • The economy is not so buoyant, it needs urgent attention.

With case:

  • The boys arrived last night, they did not come with their
  • John called the girlhe asked her to stay at home.
  • The lady works in Lagos, she comes to Ondo every weekend.

Shifts in Construction

Apart from drowning yourself in what is Concord, you also need to know that there must be no shifts at all in your grammatical constructions, especially when you are expressing a single idea.

In other words, what I am saying is that your sentences must be the same in person, number, voice, and tense; that is, there must be agreement or concord in your sentences in terms of person, number, voice, and tense.

Do not shift from one person to the other

Look at the following:

  • *When you are confused, one doesn’t know what to do. (Incorrect)
  • When you are confused, you don’t know what to do. (Correct)
  •  We love the harvest months because we have a lot to eat. (Correct)
  • *They love the harvest months because we have a lot to eat. (Incorrect)
  • *For one to pass that course, I must study diligently. (Incorrect)
  • For me to pass that course, I must study diligently. (Correct)

 Do not shift from one voice to another

See the following:

  • *They praised the girl, but the boy was punished.
  • *The course leader rushed into the classroom, looked around and was seated.
  • *The driver was arrested but they released the passengers.

See correct way to render these sentences:

  • They praised the girl but punished the boy. (Active voice)
  • The course leader rushed into the classroom, looked around and sat. (Active voice)
  • The driver was arrested but the passengers were released. (Passive voice)

Do not shift from one tense to another

See the following constructions:

  • *He pressed the doorbell but there is no answer.
  • *The man gave the girl some money, but she does not thank him.

The correct forms of these sentences are:

  •  He pressed the doorbell but there was no answer.
  • The man gave the girl some money, but she did not thank him.

I hope you find this post on what is concord? enlightening. enjoy and share…

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