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The Poem Vanity by Birago Diop



The Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

If we tell, gently, gently

All that we shall one day have to tell,

Who then will hear our voices without laughter,

Sad complaining voices of beggars

Who indeed will hear them without laughter?


If we cry roughly of our torments

 Ever increasing from the start of things

What eyes will watch our large mouths

Shaped by the laughter of big children

What eyes will watch our large mouth?


What hearts will listen to our clamoring?

What ear to our pitiful anger

Which grows in us like a tumor

In the black depth of our plaintive throats?


When our Dead comes with their Dead

 When they have spoken to us in their clumsy voices;

Just as our ears were deaf

To their cries, to their wild appeals

Just as our ears were deaf


They have left on the earth their cries,

In the air, on the water,

where they have traced their signs for us blind
and unworthy Sons

Who see nothing of what they have made

 In the air, on the water, where they have traced their signs


And since we did not understand the dead

Since we have never listened to their cries

 If we weep, gently, gently

 If we cry roughly to our torments

What heart will listen to our clamoring,

What ear to our sobbing hearts?

Background the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

With the colonization of Africa and the subsequent introduction of Western values and ways of life, many Africans, especially those educated in the Western way, consciously distanced themselves from the traditional beliefs, practices and general ways of life oftheir people. They saw them in the light their white masters would have them do. They saw them as primitive, retrogressive and even barbaric. In the French West Africa from where the poet comes, the Assimilation Policy introduced as a system of administration by the imperial France actually set out to achieve this in the name of making Frenchmen out of the natives and granting them equality, liberty and fostering fraternity among all. The discovery of the contrary by Africans who later visited or went to school in France and the consequent realization that African values and ways of life are not inherently inferior provided the background to the poem.

Summary the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

The poem addresses the need for Africans not to neglect their past or roots, obviously, the poet-persona is concerned about the abandonment of ancestral ways and the teachings of the ancestors, as obtainable in the traditional African society, by the westernised generations of Africans. In addition, there is a preoccupation with the need to look inward in the efforts to solve the challenges faced by the continent. There are suggestions to the effect that turning eyes or ears in other directions will not do much, if any, good. The poet, therefore, warns that if this trend is not promptly reversed, Africans stand the risk of becoming the laughing stock of others.

Line to line Analysis of the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

Stanza 1 (Lines 1- 5)

In this stanza, the poet wonderingly comments on the reluctance of Africans to address a certain issue of serious concern. According to him, this issue, which he is yet to disclose, is being talked about in ushed tones or not given enough attention. It is, however, an issue which should not only be discussed openly but loudly too. Because of this, any delay will make us object of others’ laughter. In addition, any complaint resulting from our current a.would make us not any than “sad complaining voices of beggars.” Here, the poet uses a paradox to subtly mock our situation for beggars are not tod to complain.

Stanza 2 (Lines 6-10)

This stanza carries the poet’s wonder further. He wonders who will pay us attention if we complain about our pains, which have been there for ages. This wonder is predicated on the fact that we have not done the right thing by ourselves. It is still linked to the fact that we have not addressed our challenges in the right way. By describing our mouths as large ones, the poet further shows the pointlessness of complaining while abandoning the right course of action.

Stanza (Lines 11-14)

style repeating what we have in the first and second stanzas, the poet rhetorically asks again whether there is anyone who will pay attention to our complaints and anger, which he seems to consider unjustifiable. In fact, he likens such kind of anger to a growing tumour, which is a self-inflicted and self nurtured pain.

Stanza 3 (Lines 11-14)

in a style repeating what we have in the first and second stanzas, the poet rhetorically asks again whether there is anyone who will pay attention to our complaints and anger, which he seems to conside unjustifiable. In fact, he likens such kind of anger to a growing tumour, which is a self-inflicted
self-nurtured pain.

Stanza 4 (Lines 15-24)

This stanza, the longest in the poem, provides the details of why the poet wonders if there is anyone who will listen to our complaints or if we do not deserve to be mocked. We are informed that when our ancestors come, the way they normally give us advice and direct us, we turn deaf do ears to them. Even when they cry and plead with us on certain courses of action, we still remain deaf to their entreaties. This is further compared to the way we have equally abandoned their teachings, as left behind in cultural artefacts and natural elements around us. We have refused to see, as much as we have refused to listen to the teachings of our progenitors. For these reasons, the poet declares us “blind, deaf and unworthy Sons”.

Stanza 5 (Lines 25-30)

This stanza recaps that has been said in the previous It also clearly states the reason why complaining about our plight deserves no sympathetic understanding. We do not deserve being given attention if we now cry or complain because we have also refused to listen to the voices of wisdom.

Analysis of the Themes of the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

The theme of wisdom of the ancestors is invaluable in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

The peom presents ancestors as a weservoir of sound teaching and wisdom which are sufficient to guide their offspring through the challenges of life these teaching and wisdom are describe as “cries” and “wild appeals”. with such descriptions the poet suggests that the ancestors are not only in earnest, they are not interested in listening to their voices . The ancestors also leave behind them signs in the natural elements as guides to the living. The poem, therefore, suggests that the only thing that can prevent the living from becoming object of scorn and enjoy the patronage of the ancestors is to heed their words and signs.

The theme of Abandonment of traditional ways or values in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

The poem comments on the tendency of African educated elites and other westernized Africans to abandon African wisdom, values and general traditional ways of life. Because many of these people have been led into believing that African ways of life are primitive and barbaric, they embrace foreign.values and become uninterested in their own people’s values. The poet condemns this in strong tems, dismissing those culpable in this regard as worthless offspring. While arguing that it is unwise to abandon the traditional ways, the poet also suggests that foreign values will not help. Because the abandonment is intentional, the poet notes that unpleasant experiences may attend it

The Theme of Warning to renegades in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

In spite of the dominance or presence of other themes in the poem, the entire poem an be summarized a warming sten to the to renegades. The poem is preoccupied with a warning to those who have chosen not to include the voice of elders, voice of wisdom and voice of the ancestors. of the poet’s warning fact that continued will earn nothing Parts of but and reticule. th us when grappling with our self-inflicted wounds, people will’simply laugh at us.

The Theme of pain and misery in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

Another important theme of the poem is that of Questions on the poem Vanity and pain. this theme is linked to the vanity of those who consider foreign ways. superior and more desirable than africa’s. Their action is cetayn to bring. about some adverse consequence, which include sadness, mockery should and pain. The poet observe that we would become sad complainers, attracting noting but others mockery should we fail to promptly address the renegade tendencies of our fellow westernized aficans. The same thing would happen if we merely lament over our pains and challenges instead of taking the right steps to get round them, which is to heed the wisdom of our forebears. The pain and misery referred  to are however not physical ones, but psychological ones. Some words which easily draw attention to the issues of pain and misery in the poem include “tumour”, “pitiful anger”, “plaintive throats”, “complaining”, “cry roughly”, “weep”, “clamouring” and sobbing hearts” 

Mood and Tone of the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

The mood is that of worry with a corresponding tone of concern, condemnation, sarcasm and ridicule. He expresses his worry through a number of rhetorical questions.

Poetic Devices of the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

The use of Rhetorical question in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

presenting his points, the poet extensively makes use of rhetorical question. As a question which does not anticipate any answer from the listener, the poet actually makes a number of statements with Except the each of the as making up the poem is either one long rhetorical
features one or two examples. The first stanza, which one long rhetorical, indirectly states fact if the much needed talk is not openly and promptly done, complaining in the future will not be a sad expedience but a Similarly, Stanza two, another long rhetorical quest that if we merely cry, the result would be the same. Apparently for emphasis, the third stanza features two of such questions without any conditional ‘if They will suffice appropriate examples:

What heart will listen to our clamouring?

What ear to our pitiful anger

Which grows in us like a tumour

In the black depth of our plaintive throats?

without the conditional clause, as we have in the previous stanzas, these questions unpretentiously reel the consequences of the current reality, which is that of the voice and sign of our forbare The last stanza returns us to the use of rhetorical question with the conditional clause. in
addition to the two conditional clauses employed in the stanza, two reasons are also advanced The use the fact that neglecting the ways of the ancestors will neither bring us any good norcof this device clearly shows that the poet-speaker is challenging the renegades and trying prick the conscience of other westernized Africans. It also hints at his frustration, especially in the lat
stanza, over prospect of making his target turn over a new leaf.

2. Repetitionin in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

The use of repetition in the poem is also quite extensive. The following are good examples:
If we tell gently, gently

Line 1

If we weep gently, gently

Line 27

What eyes will watch our large mouths?

Lines 8 and 10

Just as our ears were deaf

Lines 17 and 19

In the air, on the water, where they have traced their signs

Lines 21 and 24

If we cry roughly of our torments

Lines 6 and 28

What heart will listen to our clamouring

Lines 11 and 29
Separately and collectively, these examples have their significance. The idea al “tell in Line 1 suggests a kind of speech that lacks confidence and assertiveness It sugest fear or even inferiority complex in the speaker In the second example, “gently element of oppressive condition. Weeping must have been engendered by an unpleasant If the victim therefore finds it hard to give a full expression to his feelings of pain or discomfort by weeping with restraint, the complaining.much later is certain to invite a mocking laughter repetition of “what eyes will watch our large mouths?” is meant to underscore the fact that people not pay attention to complaints made
at a wrong and belated time. Similarly, “Just as our hear were deaf emphasizes the neglect of the voices of the ancestors as well the signs they leave behind 21 and 24 where we have “in the air, on the water, where they have traced their signs
the present their signs in the natural elements is not only emphasized, the expression itself tries to show can be no pretension about not knowing how to learn of the wisdom or get the necessary from the ancestors by anybody. With this expression, and its repetition, the ubiquity offbese Consequently, finding oneself in trouble as a result of not following them is a self inflicted injury other two examples from Lines 6 and 28 and Line 1 and 29, on the other hand, are significant emphatic purposes. In the collective senses, these repetitions engender lyricism, a typical fcature poetry in Africa. In spite of lack ofrhyme in the poem, there is much musicality about the poem which is made possible by the repetitions. These repetitions are also spaced in such a way that they become monotonous. By driving the message very well and simultaneously providing enteriins

Use of synonyms in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

The poet deploys synonyms in the presentation of his ideas. This, in a way, appears intended to minimize repetition. However, it may be a strategy to express different shades of the same idea. Some of the examples are: complaining and clamouring; cries and appeals, cry and weep, heart and ear. These pairs of words are used in similar or related contexts to convey the same notion. Contextually, one is a synonym of the other.

5 Capitalization in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

The unusual capitalization of two different words in the poem is another s
stic device. These words are “Dead” (ine 15) and “Sons” (l. 22). The “Dead” under reference applies to the ancestors. Indeed, the aocestors are dead. To qualify as an ancestor in African belief system, a noble death and some other conditions must be met. These ancestors are also conceived as spirits of the dead and are sometimes worshipped. The poet’s reference to them with a capital letter therefore meant to venerate them and place them in the divine realm. The implication of this is that their voices signs cannot be or inferior, as many Africans believe. Certainly, this reasoning
these similarly the initial capitalization of the word “Sons”. In fact, the poet already describes apply to sons as “blind, deaf and unworthy” 22). The graphological significance of letter s’ in-sons.perhaps, lies in the fact that the African sons and daughters who have abandoned the ancestral ways in.favour of western ways are those ordinary people look up to as leaders or for guidance. They are the
powerful, the elite and the privileged.

6. Humour sarcasm in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

There is a certain humour or sarcastic tone to the poet’s reference to “our large mouths’ 8 and l. 10) as well as the description of the complaining voices as “sad” and belonging to “beggars” (l. 4). While these expressions, especially the second one, highlight the misery of those who have neglected the ancestral ways, it also evokes a wry laughter.

Imagery in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

The poem contains powerful imagery. For instance, the title “Vanity” refers to the living’s folly over their disregard for the good works of dead ancestors which according to the poet are seen on land, in the water and in the air. Words like “voices of beggars” , “our large mouths”, “our ears were deaf” and “our plaintive throat” are employed as a form of rebuke or ridicule.

The poet also repeats some phrases and images to show how serious he is about the subject-matter of the poem. Examples- “Just as our ears were deaf”, “What eyes”, What ears” “What heart”. 

8. Synecdoche in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

Another literary device used in the poem is synecdoche, which involves the substitution of a part of something for the whole thing. In the poem, different parts of the human body are variously used to represent persons. Such parts include “ear”, “ears”, “eyes”, “heart” and “hearts”. These parts of the body are important for their sensory roles. As they belong to those who are supposed to but would not sympathize with us, using them seems deliberate in order to underscore the insensitivity to “our plight.

Simile in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

This is direct comparison using the words “like” or “as”. Example: “What ear to our pitiful anger which grows in us like a tumor”.

Personification in the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

This figure of speech involves the attribution of human nature or character to animals, inanimate objects, or abstract notions. In Vanity, the poet gives life to dead ancestors through the use of personification. Examples: “When our Dead comes with their Dead, when they have spoken to us in their clumsy voices”.

The Tone the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

Different tones overlap in the poem. As noted above, there is a sarcastic tone, which engenders humour in the second stanza of the poem. Generally, the poet also employs a tone of lament and warning. Through the rhetorical questions used in the poem, the poet-speaker’s lamentation over the unhealthy development among his people filters across. In fact, the poem ends on a note that sounds more of frustration for the speaker. Through the rhetorical questions, which suffuse the poem, the poet speaks to his imaginary colleagues as if warning them to be mindful of the consequences of their action.

Setting the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

The setting of the poem Africa, though it could be narrowed down to French West Africa or Senegal, the capital of French colonies specifically, where a lot of false citizens had in the sub-region, been made out The temporal setting is clearly the colonial era or pre-Independence period.
It was a period when most of the new African educated elites, especially in French Africa, were eager to become French citizens and enjoy the perceived privileges which went with it. It was af era of craze for white values and civilization, as well as conscious attempts to denigrate African es or look down on the few who treasured it among the new educated elites. Psychologic it was a time when many of the new educated elites grappled with cultural complex, an inferiority co for that matter.

Structure of the Poem Vanity by Birago Diop

Though written in stanzas and with some rhythm, the poem Vanity is a free verse poem as it does not have a consistent meter pattern. The poem is written in 30 lines with unequal stanzas. There is an elaborate use of rhetorical questions which are being repeated for emphasis sake. These rhetorical questions are mockery of the precarious situation the French Africans would face due to the rejection of their culture.

Poet’s Biography “Birago Diop”

Birago Diop was a Senegalese poet of African folktales and folklores who lived between 11 December 1906 and 25 November 1989. Till this day, his name has never been undermined when mentioning the pioneer figures of the Négritude literary movement.

Diop received his education in Dakar and Saint-Louis, Senegal, and then studied veterinary medicine at the University of Toulouse until 1933. This was followed by a series of tours as government veterinary surgeon in the French Sudan (now Mali), Côte d’Ivoire, Upper Volta (now Burkina Faso), and Mauritania. From 1961 to 1965 he served as newly independent Senegal’s ambassador to Tunisia.

He is known for his small but beautifully composed output of lyric poetry. With his compatriot Léopold Sédar Senghor, Diop was active in the Negritude movement in the 1930s, which sought a return to African cultural values. Diop explored the mystique of African life in Leurres et lueurs (“Lures and Glimmerings”), a selection of his verse written between 1925 and 1960.

Diop received literary awards in 1964 for Les Contes d’Amadou Koumba (1947; Tales of Amadou Koumba) and Les Nouveaux Contes d’Amadou Koumba(1958), both reprinted in the 1960s, and for Contes et lavanes (1963; Tales and Commentaries). These books contained tales that were first told him by his family’s griot (a storyteller whose role is to preserve the oral traditions of his tribe). Diop’s skill in rendering the nuances of dialogue and gesture furthered the popularity of his books, selections from which were reprinted in a school-text edition in 1967. Les Contes d’Awa (“Tales of Awa”) appeared in 1978.

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I’m attracted to you, but not physically – Erica to Laycon (Video)




I’m attracted to you, but not physically – erica to laycon (video)

BBNaija housemate, Erica has opened up to Laycon that she is not in any way attracted to him physically, but mentally.

She made this known to the rapper during a discussion yesterday after he approached her to reiterate his interest in her.

Recall that Laycon had told Erica on Tuesday that he had feelings for her and cares about being in a relationship with her.

However, hours later, Erica and Kiddwaya had a steamy session in bed.

Seeking clarifications on Tuesday night, Laycon approached Erica to reveal her feelings for him.

Related:  Download Video: Hellas Verona 2 – 3 Bologna Highlights

During the conversation, Erica told Laycon that she is only mentally attracted to him but physically attracted to Kiddwaya.

Eric said:



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10 African Countries With the Most Number of Universities




10 african countries with the most number of universities

Brief History of African Universities

It is being observed that those individuals who are intellectuals, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbour them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce. While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus.

One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.

Among those works that focused on higher education under British influence, in which Eric Ashby is often referred to as a classic.

More recent works include that of Okunor, which focused on West African countries under strong British and American influence such as Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. A significant additional work on higher education is the Eastern and Southern African Universities Research Programme that was conducted in 1984. Such studies commonly view the colonial era as the beginning of modern higher education in Africa and do not refer to the higher education institutions that existed before colonialism.

It is well known that people who are scholars, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbor them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce.

While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus. One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.

African Universities Ranking Among Others

There are many different rankings and league tables, and several African universities consistently per population. The University Rankings focuses on four broad areas that they feel are of particular interest to prospective students: research, teaching, employability, and international outlook.

These four key areas are assessed using six indicators, with each given a different percentage weighting. A strong emphasis is placed on

  1. Academic reputation
  2. Faculty/student ratio
  3. Citations per faculty
  4. Employer reputation
  5. International student ratio
  6. International staff ratio

The World University Rankings places a strong emphasis on reputation. The ‘academic reputation’ is assessed through a global survey completed by academics, and the ’employer reputation’ is assessed through a survey of employers worldwide. While the rankings also score research citations, smaller and specialist institutions can be included in this ranking if they have a strong global reputation.

Notably, South Africa has four universities ranked among the top 200 in Africa;however, here are a few African universities that made it under the top 1000 in the world.

S/N University Country African Ranking World Ranking
1 University of Cape Town South Africa 1 136th
2 University of the Witwatersrand South Africa 2 194th
3 Stellenbosch University South Africa 3 259th
4 Aswan University Egypt 4 436th
5 Covenant  University Nigeria 5 451th 
6 University  of  Kwazulu-Natal South Africa 6 472th
7 Mansoura University Egypt 7 493th
8 University of Ibadan Nigeria 8 524th
9 North-West University Nigeria 9 557th
10 Suez Canal University Egypt 10 586th

Top 10 African Countries with the Most Universities

University education is more than the next level in the learning process; it is a critical component of human development worldwide. It provides not only the high-level skills necessary for every labour market but also the training essential for teachers, doctors, nurses, civil servants, engineers, humanists, entrepreneurs, scientists, social scientists, and a myriad of other personnel. It is these trained individuals who develop the capacity and analytical skills that drive local economies, support civil society, teach children, lead capable governments, and make critical decisions that affect entire societies.

An educated populace is vital in today’s world, with the convergent impacts of globalization, the increasing importance of knowledge as a primary driver of growth, and the information and communication revolution. Knowledge accumulation and application have become significant factors in economic development and are increasingly at the core of a country’s competitive advantage in the global economy.

The combination of increased computing power, diminishing prices of hardware and software, improvement of wireless and satellite technologies, and reduced telecommunication costs have all but removed the space and time barriers to information access and exchange.

S/N Country Number Of Universities Country By Population
1 Nigeria 152 206,139,000
2 South  Africa 136 59,308,123
3 Ethiopia 134 114,963,129
4 Democratic Republic of Congo 60 89,561,456
5 Egypt 55 102,334,567
6 Sudan 52 43,849,234
7 Uganda 46 45,741,567
8 Algeria 39 43,851,786
9 Kenya 39 53,771,234
10 Tanzania 33 59,786,123

These countries simultaneously raised their rates of participation in higher education. Indeed, the countries that benefited most from integration with the world economy achieved the most marked increases in educational levels.

Besides, there is growing evidence that university education, through its role in empowering domestic constituencies, building institutions, and nurturing favourable regulatory frameworks and governance structures, is vital to a country’s efforts. This is to increase social capital and to promote social cohesion, which is proving to be an essential determinant of economic growth and development.

Benefits of Studying in an African University

Study and learn during a Different way
Often those studying in Africa will experience a completely new way of teaching. this will be daunting, but it’ll also open your mind to new ways of learning.

Opportunity to make unforgettable experiences
Study shows that folks are happier and feel more fulfilled once they spend on experience than once they buy new things. once you consider the items that bring you the foremost joy, they’re usually memorable experiences. you’ll get tons of that from studying in Africa

African Degrees are well respected It
If pursuing knowledgeable career is your goal, international education and knowledge on the CV will assist you stand out. it’ll also represent you as someone who is up for a challenge. Especially now that African universities are climbing the ranks in world university rankings

Opportunity to get unique ideas and opportunities
Most of the successful businesses in Africa and Asia were found out by people that gained international exposure and education. Econet, Celtel, IrokoTv, Jumia, and more. By studying in Africa, if you’re curious, you’ll find new ways to unravel a drag back home.

Opportunity to find out a replacement language
Studying during a country that speaks a special official language as yours is among the simplest ways to find out or brush up a replacement language. Imagine being close to communicate in German, French, or Mandarin. that would are available handy along your career path. Africa is diverse when it involves languages. All you’ve got to try to to is pick those that interest you the foremost .

Studying during a foreign country is different from tourism
Travel for a vacation is extremely different from settling during a foreign country for a yearlong study. you’ll get to experience your home of study for a more extended period and familiarize yourself with local knowledge like what tourist traps to avoid and the way to urge the foremost out of your new city.

Opportunity to experience the rich African culture
Yes, food. you only haven’t any idea about the variability of food that exists out there. you’ll never know until you venture out. you’ll even discover your new favourite.

Opportunity to require advantage of lower tuition fees
This, of course, depends on where you study in Africa. However, if you select a location in many parts of continental Europe, Asia, and Latin America , you’ll find it’s impossible to review at a highly reputed university without stepping into debt.

You will meet a various range of individuals
You will experience exposure to several differing types of individuals won’t only assist you to develop your people skills, but it’ll also offer you a firmer knowledge of others.

Enjoy international student discounts
Many famous Universities in Africa destinations offer student discounts for various activities, from transportation, bookstores to movie tickets and museums. you only need to spend wisely.

Opportunity to form lifelong friends
You will quickly develop the attitude that we are during this , along side other international students. this will end in lifelong friendships, even with the local students. you’ll not love every single person you meet, but the probabilities are that you’ll meet a minimum of one lifelong friend.

You will gain a more excellent knowledge of various cultures
As you observe and learn why people from different cultures do things the way they are doing , your emotional intelligence develops. you’ll learn to be less judgmental.

Opportunity to become spontaneous and adventurous
Being during a foreign environment ignites your adventurous nature. You tend to require to explore your new environment. Open your mind up to new experiences and sights and learn an excellent deal while having some fun.

Opportunity to explore together with your spare time
In between lectures and lab sessions, studying Africa should leave you with many time to explore. Whether you’re one for visiting iconic landmarks, trying new foods, or bartering at local markets, there’s sure to be a far better way of paying some time than scrolling through Facebook!

There is a robust involve strengthening universities and research within the new Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025. Its objectives include boosting postgraduate and post-doctoral education and growing competitive awards to nurture young academics, more international research cooperation, and expanding centres of excellence and institutional links.

Tertiary education and research are given more stress than in previous education statements, reflecting continental realization of their importance to growth and development.

The Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025, or CESA 16-25, is driven by a desire to realize quality education and training that gives the continent with “efficient human resources adapted to African core values and thus ready to achieve the vision and ambitions of the African Union.”

Strategic Objectives of African Universities
Revitalize the teaching profession to make sure quality and relevance in the least levels of education.
To build, rehabilitate, and support education infrastructure and develop policies that ensure a permanent stress-free and conducive learning environment for all to expand access to quality education in the least levels, including informal and non-formal settings.
Harness the capacity of ICT to enhance access, quality, and management of education and training systems.
Ensure acquisition of requisite knowledge and skills also as improved completion rates altogether groups through harmonization processes across all levels for national and regional integration.
Accelerate processes resulting in gender parity and equity.
Launch comprehensive and useful literacy programs across the continent.
Strengthen the science and arithmetic curricula in youth training and disseminate knowledge domain and culture in society.
Expand technical and vocational opportunities at both secondary and tertiary levels and strengthen linkages between the planet of labor and education and training systems.
Revitalize and expand tertiary education, research, and innovation to deal with continental challenges and promote global competitiveness.
Promote peace education and conflict prevention and determination in the least levels of education and for all age groups.
Improve management of education systems and build capacity for data collection, management, analysis, communication, and use.
Create a coalition of stakeholders to facilitate and support activities resulting from the implementation of CESA 16-25. Of importance to education is that the got to train well-qualified teachers and deliver continuous professional development.
Good university programs should integrate entrepreneurship and leadership training in their curriculum, in order that they produce graduates who have the soft-skills to play an impactful role in Africa’s economic transformation, and who begin not as job-seekers but as job creators. Eventually, aligning education to the stress of the market requires that we measure how successful universities fuse the lecture hall with the planet of labor .

Furthermore, the African countries with the foremost universities span across ten countries, from Uganda within the east to Nigeria within the west, Morocco within the north to South Africa at the southernmost tip of the continent.

In the University rankings, Two of South Africa’s universities feature within the top 200 of the worldwide rankings: the University of Cape Town is Africa’s top university, sitting at joint 136th position, while the University of Witwatersrand occupies the joint 194th spot.

Overall, Egypt and South Africa are the 2 best represented African countries within the ranking, with 20 and 10 universities each. Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa all have universities within the top 500 of the worldwide ranking. Finally, the ranking rates university performance using 13 different indicators; a number of which are measuring teaching, research, research impact, innovation, and international outlook.

In summary, variety is that the spice of life. Why not take that bold step towards gaining admission to review in Africa. YOUR SUCCESS MATTERS!

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How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services




How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

Today we are using generated company symbols to properly mark your social networks.
If you still do not have a logo and corporate identity, then our Logaster generator will always help to develop them quickly and efficiently.

Why should your business be represented on social networks?
Social networks are an integral part of the modern Internet, they have a huge audience and will become worthy platforms for promoting your brand. So, why does your company have to have pages on popular social networks?

Internet reputation management. Corporate social media accounts will help you post the most current, relevant and reliable information about the company, cover its activities from the best perspectives, which will positively affect your reputation;

Strengthen industry influence. Social networks are considered to be a powerful networking tool – creating useful links in the industry that interests you. Owing to this, you can quickly identify and collect useful information and connections for potential customers , associates, staff, investors;

Expanding audience reach. With the help of social networks, you will be able to significantly increase the number of points of contact with the target audience, a significant part of which may want to purchase your goods or services;

Improving customer loyalty. By regularly visiting your corporate accounts, you can work with customer reviews, complaints and suggestions. Prompt feedback will help you make your audience much more loyal and positive;

More effective search engine promotion. Conscientious maintenance of pages on social networks with frequent updating of unique content will significantly improve the position of your company’s website in search engine delivery (Google, Yandex);

Benefits for other marketing tools. Proper use of social media will bring an additional effect for solving other marketing tasks of your brand – from a corporate blog and electronic mailings to webinars or offline events.How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

We have therefore mentioned the principal reasons why you should build company accounts in common social networks.

More reasons can be found here.

What social networks should be made out?
The choice of the channel with which you can “reach out” to the target audience, and the competent design of the profile is an important and necessary marketing move.

The most popular among businesses in the CIS are sites such as Instagram, Facebook, VK, Odnoklassniki, YouTube. Here are some tips for choosing social networks for maintaining and promoting:

Which social networks should be emphasized largely depends on the subject of the project. For example, if your business is associated with any kind of creativity, then social networks such as YouTube (for creating video content), Instagram (photos of products, especially designer clothes, clothes, hand-made), SoundCloud (writing music) are best suited for its promotion.

If you have a typical company, VK and Facebook will provide the best response to the “basic” social networks. As for the Instagram service, it has proven itself for various areas of online business, including online stores (especially with goods for women), creative services, etc.

Closely monitor web analytics – it will help determine which services the largest number of visitors and purchases come to you from. By default, VK, Facebook, Odnoklassniki are considered the most useful among our entrepreneurs, followed by Twitter, Instagram and Youtube.

At the same time, we recommend not to “spray” on all available social networks, but to focus on those that lead major customers. It will be useful to study the pages of competitors, which can suggest some useful details. Of course, this advice is for those projects that already have a small traffic to the site.

You can also create corporate accounts in all specified social networks, arrange them, but only 2-3 of them are actively promoted and updated – the most effective for you. So you can save your time and at the same time not miss potential customers.

How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

A professional publishing and communication strategy for every channel is equally essential. For example, Facebook and VK are ideally suited for posting informational content (posts, articles, news), working with reviews, orders and customer requests, targeted advertising, etc.

In turn, Instagram ideally sells goods or services with photos, and on YouTube you can effectively post video reviews and presentations of your products, instructions.

Proper design of social networks – why is it so important?
It is not enough just to create company accounts in social networks, you also need to issue them in a high-quality manner. Proper branding plays a very important role, since any Internet user is now simply overloaded with information, especially in social networks. There is an opinion that an ordinary person sees hundreds of logos of various brands every day – both online and in reality.

Do not believe? Then just look back on the sides, go to your favourite sites and count the number of corporate symbols surrounding you.

Careful design of social networks will help to stand out against the background of numerous visual “spam”, and it will also provide your business with a number of advantages:

With it, you can attract the attention of users, help them better know your brand, highlight it against the background of symbols of other companies and competitors. The presence of a logo or other elements of corporate identity will allow the audience not to miss important news, promotions or other updates to your company;

You will be able to create a more holistic image of the company by branding social networks. Such sites are very important points of contact with customers, so the use of corporate identity will help you to remain consistent, while maintaining the integrity of your image in the eyes of the audience;

Branded content looks more attractive than regular photos, videos or text. With it, you can increase customer loyalty, gently advertise your brand, “accustom” them to your materials – as a result, they will respond positively to them by default.

As you can see, the competent design of social networks is of great importance for any enterprise, helping to establish a closer relationship with customers, which will positively affect the development of your business.

Social Media Branding Tips
So, you have developed a logo and corporate identity, created pages on social networks, defined their main goals (promotion of goods / services, work with reviews, etc.). Now is the time to proceed to the design of your accounts, following these tips:

Be consistent with the style of the pages, everywhere use the same fonts, color schemes, graphic elements, etc. Only in this way will you achieve that people will recognize your corporate colors even without a logo or company name;

The dimensions and other parameters of your logo should be adapted to the requirements of each individual social network. Do not use the logo of the same size for all sites, as it can be displayed there in cropped or stretched form. By the way, the Logaster service will help you immediately download various logo options of all necessary dimensions for popular social networks;

If the space on the avatar is limited, then it is better to use a simplified version of the logo, for example, without a text warehouse;

Pay special attention to the cover and photo (logo) of the account, because it is on them that the first look of each visitor is directed. It is important that they have the same style and color scheme with your corporate identity. You will be able to find a suitable caption for the theme of your business on photo stocks, or you can order it from a designer;

We recommend that you follow identical positioning and design when designing pages on different social networks. For example, if your logo on Facebook is in the lower right corner, then try to place it in about the same place and on other platforms (if possible);

You can also put any short text on the cover of your account – especially if it is really important / interesting information, for example, about a promotion, and you want users to see it first.

Having completed the design of the page, be sure to test it on all possible devices – PC, laptop, tablet, smartphone, etc. Make sure that all key elements look equally good at any screen resolution, not stretched or cropped. Any seeming trifle can significantly affect the reputation of your company and the loyalty of its audience.

Next, we will tell you how to upload your logo to the pages of popular social networks.

How to add an avatar (profile photo) on social networks
Below we consider the process of uploading a logo to Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Vkontakte,, LinkedIn, YouTube and Pinterest. Make sure you have the right size logo versions.

Image sizes for social networks (2020):
Image to external links: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 630 px
Cover: 820 x 312 px
Profile Photo: 170 x 170 px

In contact with
Image to external links: 537 x 240 px
Picture for post: 700 x 500 px
Profile photo: 200 x 500 px

Tweet picture: 1024 x 675 px
Cover: 1500 x 500 px
Profile photo: 400 x 400 px

Post picture: 1080 x 1080 px
Profile photo: 110 x 110 px

Image over video: 1280 x 720 px
Channel cover: 2560 x 1440 px
Profile photo: 800 x 800 px

Picture for pin: 1000 x 1500 px
Profile photo: 165 x 165 px

Image to external links:: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 1200 px
Cover: 1584 x 768 px
Profile photo: 300 x 300 px
Picture for post: 1680 x 1680 px
Cover: 1340 x 320 px
Profile Photo: 190 x 190 px

How to upload an image

First, make sure that you have a logo in PNG format of the right size – you can add it to your Facebook page.

How to add or change profile photo:

1. Log in to your Facebook account and go to your page.
2. Move the cursor over the place for the photo and click on the camera icon.
3. Select “Upload Photo”.
4. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. If necessary, the image can be cropped and arranged in accordance with the plan.
5. Click “Save.”

facebook min
How to add or change a cover:
1. Go to your page, hover over the cover image and click “Change Cover”.
2. Select Upload Photo.
3. Select the logo file and click Open. Position the image as you see fit.
4. Click Save.

Please note that although your profile photo is displayed on the user’s page as a square, in the news feed it takes the form of a circle. If you have a square logo, reduce its size so that the corners are not cut and it is not too crowded in a circle.


File size requirements are listed here.
Note: unlike Facebook, where business accounts are created on the basis of personal accounts, Twitter needs to have a separate page for the company or project.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Twitter account and open your page by clicking on your name.
2. Click the Edit profile button on the right side of the page and click on your photo. Click Select Photo.
3. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. Position the logo as you see fit.
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.

How to add or change the image in the header:
1. Go to your page and click the “Edit Profile” button.
2. Click on the header and select the Add header option.
3. Select a file and click “Open.”
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.

In contact with

File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a VK group and community:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
If you do not have an avatar yet, the text “Upload a photo” will be highlighted in its place;
(if the image is already available, then just point it and the pop-up menu will offer you to update the photo).
2. Click on it and upload the logo;
3. Make sure that when reducing the avatar to a round version, your logo does not cease to be recognizable. To do this, select the desired area by clicking on “Change thumbnail”.

How to add or change cover art in a VK group and community:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Go to community settings;
3, Click on “Download” opposite “Community Cover;
4. Download the logo;
Make sure that the logo is not ridiculously cropped.

File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a group in Odnoklassniki:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Hover over the profile picture and click on “Add Image” from the pop-up menu;
3. Download the logo.


File size requirements are listed here.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Instagram account from your phone. Open your profile by clicking on the corresponding icon.
2. Click on the profile photo and select “Upload Photo”. Select a file with a logo and press “Select”.
3. On the mobile device, click “Edit Profile” and select “Change Profile Photo”. After you select the file, click “Finish.”


File size requirements are listed here.

How to add a logo to your LinkedIn company page:
1. On your profile page, click on the photo thumbnail and select “Change” in the “Company Page” tab.
2. Click the “Edit” button and click on the “Edit Page” line.
3. Scroll to the “Company Logo” section. Click the “Edit” button and add / change the logo. You can also change the location of the logo by dragging it to the desired location.
4. Click “Save.”


File size requirements are listed here and here.

How to add or change a profile photo (channel icon):
1. Log into your YouTube account.
2. Click on the line My Channel, located under the profile photo in the upper right.
3. Hover over an existing photo and click on the edit icon.
4. Click “Edit” and select the logo file. Position it as you see fit.

How to add or change channel background image:
1. Going to My channel, hover over the background image and click on the edit (or add) icon.
2. Download the file and see how it is displayed on various devices. Position it as you see fit.
3. Click “Select.”


File size requirements are listed here.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Pinterest account.
2. Click on the ellipsis at the top, then click on the “Settings” button. Scroll down to the Profile section.
3. Click “Change Image,” then select the logo file. Ra

arrange it as you see fit.
4. Click “Save Settings.”

Useful services for designing social networks
We have prepared a small list of services that will be useful to you when designing social networks. Bookmark them so you don’t lose:

Logaster – creating and downloading logos optimized for the requirements of social networks.
Crello – create designs for social media covers.
Sproutsociale – optimization of the size of finished images to the requirements of social networks. – search for images for covers and overlay text on them.
Pixabay is a free photo stock for finding cover pictures.
Pexels is a bank of free photos for creating covers and posts on social networks.
Unsplash is another photo stock for social networks.
Jaymantri – abstract pictures for creating cover or post backgrounds.
Designspiration – search for inspiration. – a collection of free fonts. – collections of color schemes that will be useful in the design of posts and covers. – check page optimization for mobile devices.

Representative offices in social networks significantly stimulate the development of the company, making it possible to increase its recognition and increase the number of points of contact with customers. Following these tips, you will create really powerful marketing tools that will help you attract many potential customers from popular social media.

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