To Kill a Mockingbird
Critical Analysis of To Kill a Mockingbird
Table of Content
1. To Kill a Mockingbird Summary
2. Roles and Analysis of all Characters in To Kill a Mockingbird
3. Themes of To Kill a Mockingbird
4. Symbols of To Kill a Mockingbird
To Kill a Mockingbird Summary
To Kill a Mockingbird takes place in Alabama during the Depression, and is narrated by the main character, a little girl named Jean Louise “Scout” Finch. Her father, Atticus Finch , is a lawyer with high moral standards. Scout, her brother Jem, and their friend Dill are intrigued by the local rumors about a man named Boo Radley, who lives in their neighborhood but never leaves his house. Legend has it that he once stabbed his father in the leg with a pair of scissors, and he is made out to be a kind of monster. Dill is from Mississippi but spends his summer in Maycomb at a house near the Finch’s.
The children are curious to know more about Boo, and during one summer create a mini-drama they enact daily, which tells the events of his life as they know them. Slowly, the children begin moving closer to the Radley house, which is said to be haunted. They try leaving notes for Boo on his windowsill with a fishing pole, but are caught by Atticus, who firmly reprimands them for making fun of a sad man’s life. Next, the children try sneaking over to the house at night and looking through its windows. Boo’s brother, Nathan Radley, who lives in the house, thinks he hears a prowler and fires his gun. The children run away, but Jem loses his pants in a fence. When he returns in the middle of the night to get them back, they have been neatly folded and the tear from the fence roughly sewn up.
Other mysterious things happen to the Finch children. A certain tree near the Radley house has a hole in which little presents are often left for them, such as pennies, chewing gum, and soap carved figures of a little boy and girl who bear a striking resemblance to Scout and Jem. The children don’t know where these gifts are coming from, and when they go to leave a note for the mystery giver, they find that Boo’s brother has plugged up the hole with cement. The next winter brings unexpected cold and snow, and Miss Maudie’s house catches on fire. While Jem and Scout, shivering, watch the blaze from near the Radley house, someone puts a blanket around Scout without her realizing it. Not until she returns home and Atticus asks her where the blanket came from does she realize that Boo Radley must have put it around her while she was entranced by watching Miss Maudie, her favorite neighbor, and her burning house.
Atticus decides to take on a case involving a black man named Tom Robinson who has been accused of raping a very poor white girl named
Mayella Ewell , a member of the notorious Ewell family, who belong to the layer of Maycomb society that people refer to as “trash.” The Finch family faces harsh criticism in the heavily racist Maycomb because of Atticus’s decision to defend Tom. But, Atticus insists on going through with the case because his conscience could not let him do otherwise. He knows Tom is innocent, and also that he has almost no chance at being acquitted, because the white jury will never believe a black man over a white woman. Despite this, Atticus wants to reveal the truth to his fellow townspeople, expose their bigotry, and encourage them to imagine the possibility of racial equality.
Because Atticus is defending a black man, Scout and Jem find themselves whispered at and taunted, and have trouble keeping their tempers. At a family Christmas gathering, Scout beats up her cloying relative Francis when he accuses Atticus of ruining the family name by being a “nigger-lover”. Jem cuts off the tops of an old neighbor’s flower bushes after she derides Atticus, and as punishment, has to read out loud to her every day. Jem does not realize until after she dies that he is helping her break her morphine addiction. When revealing this to Jem and Scout, Atticus holds this old woman up as an example of true courage: the will to keep fighting even when you know you can’t win.
The time for the trial draws closer, and Atticus’s sister Alexandra comes to stay with the family. She is proper and old-fashioned and wants to shape Scout into the model of the Southern feminine ideal, much to Scout’s resentment. Dill runs away from his home, where his mother and new father don’t seem interested in him, and stays in Maycomb for the summer of Tom’s trial. The night before the trial, Tom is moved into the county jail, and Atticus, fearing a possible lynching, stands guard outside the jail door all night. Jem is concerned about him, and the three children sneak into town to find him. A group of men arrive ready to cause some violence to Tom, and threaten Atticus in the process. At first Jem, Scout and Dill stand aside, but when she senses true danger, Scout runs out and begins to speak to one of the men, the father of one of her classmates in school. Her innocence brings the crowd out of their mob mentality, and they leave.
The trial pits the evidence of the white Ewell family against Tom’s evidence. According to the Ewells, Mayella asked Tom to do some work for her while her father was out, and Tom came into their house and forcibly beat and raped Mayella until her father appeared and scared him away. Tom’s version is that Mayella invited him inside, then threw her arms around him and began to kiss him. Tom tried to push her away. When Bob Ewell arrived, he flew into a rage and beat her, while Tom ran away in fright. According to the sheriff’s testimony, Mayella’s bruises were on the right side of her face, which means she was most likely punched with a left hand. Tom Robinson’s left arm is useless due to an old accident, whereas Mr. Ewell leads with his left. Given the evidence of reasonable doubt, Tom should go free, but after hours of deliberation, the jury pronounces him guilty. Scout, Jem and Dill sneak into the courthouse to see the trial and sit in the balcony with Maycomb’s black population. They are stunned at the verdict because to them, the evidence was so clearly in Tom’s favor.
Though the verdict is unfortunate, Atticus feels some satisfaction that the jury took so long deciding. Usually, the decision would be made in minutes, because a black man’s word would not be trusted. Atticus is hoping for an appeal, but unfortunately Tom tries to escape from his prison and is shot to death in the process. Jem has trouble handling the results of the trial, feeling that his trust in the goodness and rationality of humanity has been betrayed.
Meanwhile, Mr. Ewell threatens Atticus and other people connected with the trial because he feels he was humiliated. He gets his revenge one night while Jem and Scout are walking home from the Halloween play at their school. He follows them home in the dark, then runs at them and attempts to kill them with a large kitchen knife. Jem breaks his arm, and Scout, who is wearing a confining ham shaped wire costume and cannot see what is going on, is helpless throughout the attack. The elusive Boo Radley stabs Mr. Ewell and saves the children. Finally, Scout has a chance to meet the shy and nervous Boo. At the end of this fateful night, the sheriff declares that Mr. Ewell fell on his own knife so Boo, the hero of the situation, won’t have to be tried for murder. Scout walks Boo home and imagines how he has viewed the town and observed her, Jem and Dill over the years from inside his home. Boo goes inside, closes the door, and she never sees him again.
Roles and Analysis of all Characters in To Kill a Mockingbird
Role and Character Analysis of Jean Louise Finch (Scout) in To Kill a Mockingbird
Jean Louise Finch (Scout)
The narrator of To Kill a Mockingbird , Scout is Atticus ‘s daughter, Jem ‘s sister, Alexandra and Jack’s niece, and friends with Dill. In the three years the novel covers, she grows from six-years-old to nine. Scout is intelligent and loves to read, but is also headstrong, outspoken, and a tomboy. As the novel opens, Scout is both innocent and intolerant of anything new or different. Scout’s innocence falls away in part because she is growing up and in part from the trial of Tom Robinson: she discovers how cruel and violent people can be. But she also learns, through Atticus’s careful teaching, that the necessary response to intolerance is to try to understand its origins, to relate to people in terms of their dignity rather than their anger, and to use that foundation as a way to try to slowly change their minds.
Role and Character Analysis of Atticus Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird
As one of the most prominent citizens in Maycomb during the Great Depression, Atticus is relatively well off in a time of widespread poverty. Because of his penetrating intelligence, calm wisdom, and exemplary behavior, Atticus is respected by everyone, including the very poor. He functions as the moral backbone of Maycomb, a person to whom others turn in times of doubt and trouble. But the conscience that makes him so admirable ultimately causes his falling out with the people of Maycomb. Unable to abide the town’s comfortable ingrained racial prejudice, he agrees to defend Tom Robinson, a black man. Atticus’s action makes him the object of scorn in Maycomb, but he is simply too impressive a figure to be scorned for long. After the trial, he seems destined to be held in the same high regard as before.
Atticus practices the ethic of sympathy and understanding that he preaches to Scout and Jem and never holds a grudge against the people of Maycomb. Despite their callous indifference to racial inequality, Atticus sees much to admire in them. He recognizes that people have both good and bad qualities, and he is determined to admire the good while understanding and forgiving the bad. Atticus passes this great moral lesson on to Scout—this perspective protects the innocent from being destroyed by contact with evil.
Ironically, though Atticus is a heroic figure in the novel and a respected man in Maycomb, neither Jem nor Scout consciously idolizes him at the beginning of the novel. Both are embarrassed that he is older than other fathers and that he doesn’t hunt or fish. But Atticus’s wise parenting, which he sums up in Chapter 30 by saying, “Before Jem looks at anyone else he looks at me, and I’ve tried to live so I can look squarely back at him,” ultimately wins their respect. By the end of the novel, Jem, in particular, is fiercely devoted to Atticus (Scout, still a little girl, loves him uncritically). Though his children’s attitude toward him evolves, Atticus is characterized throughout the book by his absolute consistency. He stands rigidly committed to justice and thoughtfully willing to view matters from the perspectives of others. He does not develop in the novel but retains these qualities in equal measure, making him the novel’s moral guide and voice of conscience.
Role and Character Analysis of Dill (Charles Baker Harris) in To Kill a Mockingbird
Dill (Charles Baker Harris)
A friend of the Finch children, who is a little older than Scout, quite short for his age, has an active imagination, and exhibits a strong sense of adventure. He initiates the first expeditions toward the Radley house, and is Scout’s best friend. His family life is less than ideal, and he tends to resort to escapism when confronted with difficult situations. Dill spends summers with his aunt, who lives next door to the Finch family.
Role and Character Analysis of Jem Finch in To Kill a Mockingbird
If Scout is an innocent girl who is exposed to evil at an early age and forced to develop an adult moral outlook, Jem finds himself in an even more turbulent situation. His shattering experience at Tom Robinson’s trial occurs just as he is entering puberty, a time when life is complicated and traumatic enough. His disillusionment upon seeing that justice does not always prevail leaves him vulnerable and confused at a critical, formative point in his life. Nevertheless, he admirably upholds the commitment to justice that Atticus instilled in him and maintains it with deep conviction throughout the novel.
Unlike the jaded Mr. Raymond, Jem is not without hope: Atticus tells Scout that Jem simply needs time to process what he has learned. The strong presence of Atticus in Jem’s life seems to promise that he will recover his equilibrium. Later in his life, Jem is able to see that Boo Radley’s unexpected aid indicates there is good in people. Even before the end of the novel, Jem shows signs of having learned a positive lesson from the trial; for instance, at the beginning of Chapter 25, he refuses to allow Scout to squash a roly-poly bug because it has done nothing to harm her. After seeing the unfair destruction of Tom Robinson, Jem now wants to protect the fragile and harmless.
The idea that Jem resolves his cynicism and moves toward a happier life is supported by the beginning of the novel, in which a grown-up Scout remembers talking to Jem about the events that make up the novel’s plot. Scout says that Jem pinpointed the children’s initial interest in Boo Radley at the beginning of the story, strongly implying that he understood what Boo represented to them and, like Scout, managed to shed his innocence without losing his hope.
Role and Character Analysis of Boo Radley and Tom Robinson in To Kill a Mockingbird
Boo Radley and Tom Robinson
Boo Radley and Tom Robinson share many similarities in spite of fact that one man is white and the other black. By juxtaposing these two characters, Lee proves that justice and compassion reach beyond the boundary of color and human prejudices. The novel’s title is a metaphor for both men, each of whom is mockingbird. In this case however, one mockingbird is shot, the other is forced to kill.
Boo and Tom are handicapped men. Lee hints that he may be physically unhealthy, and she makes statements that lead the reader to believe he may be mentally unstable. However, no character sheds any light on his actual condition, leaving the reader wondering whether Boo’s family protects him or further handicaps him. Tom is physically handicapped, like a bird with a broken wing, but his race is probably a bigger “disability” in the Maycomb community. As a result of these handicaps, both men’s lives are cut short. Whatever Boo’s problems may be, the reader knows that something happened to Boo that has caused him to become a recluse. For all practical purposes, Tom’s life ends when a white woman decides to accuse him of rape.
Boo sees Scout and Jem as his children, which is why he parts with things that are precious to him, why he mends Jem’s pants and covers Scout with a blanket, and why he ultimately kills for them: “Boo’s children needed him.” Apparently his family disapproves of his affection for the children or Mr. Radley wouldn’t have cemented the knothole. But Boo is undeterred and loves them, even with the probable knowledge that he is the object of their cruel, childish games. Tom also recognizes Mayella as a person in need. On the witness stand, he testifies that he gladly helped her because “‘Mr. Ewell didn’t seem to help her none, and neither did the chillun.'” Tom helps Mayella at great personal expense.
Both men know their town very well. Unbeknownst to the Finch children, Boo has watched them grow up. The reader can fairly assume that Boo is also familiar with the Ewells, and probably doesn’t think much more of them than the rest of Maycomb. Boo and Tom have had minor skirmishes with the law, but that past doesn’t tarnish the kindness they show to others in the story. The moment that Mayella makes a pass at Tom, he inherently knows that he’s in serious danger. Truthfully, he probably knew that helping her without pay was not the safest thing for him to do, but the compassion of one human being for another won out over societal expectations. The children treat Boo with as much prejudice as the town shows Tom Robinson. They assign characteristics to Boo without validation; they want to see Boo, not as their neighbor, but as a carnival-freak-show-type curiosity. Ironically, watching the injustice that Tom suffers helps the children understand why Boo may choose to be a recluse: “‘it’s because he wants to stay inside.’
Role and Character Analysis of Bob Ewell in To Kill a Mockingbird
Bob Ewell – A drunken, mostly unemployed member of Maycomb’s poorest family. In his knowingly wrongful accusation that Tom Robinson raped his daughter, Ewell represents the dark side of the South: ignorance, poverty, squalor, and hate-filled racial prejudice.
Role and Character Analysis of Charles Baker in To Kill a Mockingbird
Charles Baker “Dill” Harris – Jem and Scout’s summer neighbor and friend. Dill is a diminutive, confident boy with an active imagination. He becomes fascinated with Boo Radley and represents the perspective of childhood innocence throughout the novel.
Role and Character Analysis of Calpurnia in To Kill a Mockingbird
A black woman who works as the Finch family’s cook and housekeeper. She is one of the many motherly figures in Scout’s life and one of the few who can negotiate between the very separate black and white worlds of Maycomb.
Role and Character Analysis of Maudie Atkinson in To Kill a Mockingbird
A kind, cheerful, and witty neighbor and trusted friend of Scout’s, who also upholds a strong moral code and helps the children gain perspective on the events surrounding the trial. She also loves gardening.
Role and Character Analysis of Mayella Ewell in To Kill a Mockingbird
The oldest of the many Ewell children, at age nineteen. She lives a miserable and lonely existence, despised by whites and prohibited from befriending blacks. However, she breaks a social taboo by trying to seduce Tom, then reacts with cowardice by accusing him of rape and perjuring against him in court.
Role and Character Analysis of Heck Tate in To Kill a Mockingbird
Maycomb County’s trusty sheriff, who is ultimately an honest and upstanding man.
Role and Character Analysis of Aunt Alexandra in To Kill a Mockingbird
Atticus’s sister, who has very strict, traditional ideas of how society works and the role a Southern woman should play. She earneslty tries to pass along this information to Scout, who is not particularly interested. Alexandra is concerned with raising Atticus’s children “properly,” and thus appears during the summer of Tom’s trial to stay with them.
Role and Character Analysis of Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose in To Kill a Mockingbird
Mrs. Henry Lafayette Dubose – An elderly, ill-tempered, racist woman who lives near the Finches. Although Jem believes that Mrs. Dubose is a thoroughly bad woman, Atticus admires her for the courage with which she battles her morphine addiction.
Role and Character Analysis of Nathan Radley in To Kill a Mockingbird
Nathan Radley – Boo Radley’s older brother. Scout thinks that Nathan is similar to the deceased Mr. Radley, Boo and Nathan’s father. Nathan cruelly cuts off an important element of Boo’s relationship with Jem and Scout when he plugs up the knothole in which Boo
Role and Character Analysis of Reverend Sykes in To Kill a Mockingbird
The reverend for the all-black congregation, First Purchase African M.E. church, which Scout and Jem visit one day with Calpurnia.
Role and Character Analysis of Judge Taylor in To Kill a Mockingbird
The judge for Tom’s trial. Taylor is a good, sensible man with a sense of humor, who manages a strict courtroom.
Role and Character Analysis of Mr. Gilmer in To Kill a Mockingbird
Lawyer for the Ewell family in Tom Robinson’s case.
Role and Character Analysis of Link Deas in To Kill a Mockingbird
Tom Robinson’s employer.
The writer, editor, and publisher of Maycomb’s newspaper.
Role and Character Analysis of Mr. Dolphus Raymond in To Kill a Mockingbird
Mr. Dolphus Raymond
A wealthy white man who lives outside town with his black mistress and interracial children.
Role and Character Analysis of Mr. Cunningham in To Kill a Mockingbird
One of the poor Cunningham farmers and the father of Walter Cunningham.
Role and Character Analysis of Walter Cunningham in To Kill a Mockingbird
Mr. Cunningham’s son and Scout’s classmate.
Role and Character Analysis of Miss Rachel Haverford in To Kill a Mockingbird
Miss Rachel Haverford
Dill’s aunt and one of the Finch’s neighbors.
Role and Character Analysis of Mrs. Grace Merriweather in To Kill a Mockingbird
Mrs. Grace Merriweather
A member of Aunt Alexandra’s social circle in Maycomb.
Role and Character Analysis of Miss Stephanie Crawford in To Kill a Mockingbird
Miss Stephanie Crawford
A neighbor of the Finch’s and a big gossip.
Role and Character Analysis of Helen Robinson in To Kill a Mockingbird
Wife of Tom.
Role and Character Analysis of Uncle Jack in To Kill a Mockingbird
Atticus’s brother, a doctor Jem and Scout are very fond of.
Role and Character Analysis of Francis in To Kill a Mockingbird
One of Aunt Alexandra’s grandchildren, who spends Christmas with the Finch family and annoys Scout by being both boring and cruel.
Role and Character Analysis of Miss Stephanie Crawford in To Kill a Mockingbird
Miss Stephanie Crawford
A neighbor of the Finch’s and a big gossip.
Role and Character Analysis of Mr. Avery in To Kill a Mockingbird
Another of the Finch’s neighbors.
Themes of To Kill a Mockingbird
Themes are the fundamental and often universal ideas explored in a literary work.
in To Kill a Mockingbird
THE COEXISTENCE OF GOOD AND EVIL
The most important theme of To Kill a Mockingbird is the book’s exploration of the moral nature of human beings—that is, whether people are essentially good or essentially evil. The novel approaches this question by dramatizing Scout and Jem ’s transition from a perspective of childhood innocence, in which they assume that people are good because they have never seen evil, to a more adult perspective, in which they have confronted evil and must incorporate it into their understanding of the world. As a result of this portrayal of the transition from innocence to experience, one of the book’s important subthemes involves the threat that hatred, prejudice, and ignorance pose to the innocent: people such as Tom Robinson and Boo Radley are not prepared for the evil that they encounter, and, as a result, they are destroyed. Even Jem is victimized to an extent by his discovery of the evil of racism during and after the trial. Whereas Scout is able to maintain her basic faith in human nature despite Tom’s conviction, Jem’s faith in justice and in humanity is badly damaged, and he retreats into a state of disillusionment.
The moral voice of To Kill a Mockingbird is embodied by Atticus Finch , who is virtually unique in the novel in that he has experienced and understood evil without losing his faith in the human capacity for goodness. Atticus understands that, rather than being simply creatures of good or creatures of evil, most people have both good and bad qualities. The important thing is to appreciate the good qualities and understand the bad qualities by treating others with sympathy and trying to see life from their perspective. He tries to teach this ultimate moral lesson to Jem and Scout to show them that it is possible to live with conscience without losing hope or becoming cynical. In this way, Atticus is able to admire Mrs. Dubose’s courage even while deploring her racism. Scout’s progress as a character in the novel is defined by her gradual development toward understanding Atticus’s lessons, culminating when, in the final chapters, Scout at last sees Boo Radley as a human being. Her newfound ability to view the world from his perspective ensures that she will not become jaded as she loses her innocence.
Themes of Perspective in To Kill a Mockingbird
Throughout the novel, Atticus urges his children to try to step into other people’s shoes to understand how they see the world. Whenever Scout doesn’t understand Jem, Atticus encourages her to try to understand how he might be feeling. Usually, Scout finds this advice helpful, and her attempts to gain insight into other people’s perspectives on life and the world broaden her moral education and social understanding.
When Mrs. Dubose , the mean old woman who lives down the street from the Finch family yells insults at Jem and Scout on her way to town, Jem reacts by returning and cutting up all the flowers in her front yard. His punishment is to read to Mrs. Dubose for a specified time period every day. He complains to Atticus that she is an awful woman, but Atticus tells Jem and Scout to try to understand Mrs. Dubose’s point of view. She is an old woman, very set her in ways, and she is entirely alone in the world. Jem and Scout agree to visit her. After Mrs. Dubose dies, Atticus reveals that by reading to her each day, the children were helping her break her morphine addiction. Atticus explains that Mrs. Dubose was fighting to regain sobriety, even as she stood on the brink of death. Because of this, to Atticus, she is the bravest person he has ever known. He explains this to the children to try to make them understand the terrible pain she was experiencing, and how their presence helped her through the process. Although she might have said some horrible things, Atticus encourages the children to try to see the world from her perspective and to understand how brave and strong she was.
At the end of the book, Scout escorts Boo Radley back to his home. After Boo closes the door, she turns around and surveys the neighborhood from his perspective. She imagines how he has witnessed all the happenings of the recent years, including her and Jem running by the house on their way to and from school, her childhood Boo Radley games, Miss Maudie’s fire, the incident of the rabid dog, and finally, Bob Ewell’s attack. As she steps into Boo’s shoes, Scout gains a new respect for his life, and understands that his experience is just as valid as hers. With this understanding, she is humbled.
Themes of Race
in To Kill a Mockingbird
Imagine a world where everyone with blue eyes got to give orders to everyone with brown eyes. If you’re born with blue eyes, you get the good jobs, the good schools, the good houses, and all the fair trials you could want. If you have brown eyes—too bad. It’s menial labor, rudimentary education, and a house by the dump.
Yeah. It doesn’t make any sense. And if it happened overnight, there’d be massive protests. But what if it happened gradually, and what if generations after generations slowly came to accept it? Pretty soon, you’d have people arguing that brown-eyed people are just naturally inferior, and that’s Just the Way It Is. And if you’re living in a
like Maycomb, there’s even less reason to question the status quo. And that’s where we are in To Kill a Mockingbird : a town even more traditional-bound than the rest of the South, where it’s not just black people who Are the Way They Are, but the white families, too. So is there hope for this town?
Themes of Prejudice in To Kill a Mockingbird
Atticus ‘s belief in treating and respecting everyone as an individual is contrasted in To Kill a Mockingbird with a number of other worldviews. These other visions are all quite different from each other—they are religious, racist, classist—but they all share one thing in common: they treat people as groups, demand conformity, and give no respect or credit to individuals. In other words, they are all forms of prejudice, which is a preconceived notion about a person based on the groups to which that person belongs. Over and over again, To Kill a Mockingbird reveals prejudice not just as closed-minded and dangerous, but also as ridiculous.
The most obvious form of prejudice in the novel is racism, which causes otherwise upstanding white citizens of Maycomb to accept the testimony of an obviously corrupt white man over the evidence supporting the testimony from a black man. Yet prejudice is also visible in the racially condescending Mrs. Grace Merriweather ; in Aunt Alexandra’s and many other character’s belief in the importance of social class; in the gender stereotypes that people try to force on Scout; and even in the way the town views Boo Radley as a monster because he acts differently from everyone else.
Themes of The Mockingbird in To Kill a Mockingbird
When Scout and Jem receive airguns for Christmas, Atticus tells them that although he would prefer that they practice their shooting with tin cans, if they must shoot at living things, they must never shoot at mockingbirds. Atticus explains that it is a sin to kill a mockingbird. Clearly, this is the title scene, but the theme continues throughout the book. Miss Maudie explains why Atticus is correct – mockingbirds never do anyone any harm, and are not pests in any way. All they do is sing beautifully and live peacefully. Therefore, it is a sin to kill them. The mockingbird comes to represent true goodness and purity. Tom Robinson is one example of a human “mockingbird”. He stands accused of raping and beating Mayella Ewell , but is innocent of the charges. The town commits the ultimate sin by finding him guilty and sentencing him to death. In effect, they have killed a mockingbird. Boo Radley is another example of a human “mockingbird”. He has spent his entire life as a prisoner of his own home because his father was overzealous in punishing him for a childhood mistake. Boo Radley observes the world around him, causing no harm to anyone, and then saves Jem and Scout’s lives when Bob Ewell attacks. The sheriff determines that Ewell’s death will be ruled an accident to avoid forcing Boo to go to trial, even though Boo killed him to protect the children. Atticus agrees, and wants to make sure Scout understands why this little white lie must be told. She replies saying of course she understands, putting Boo on trial and in the public sphere would be like killing a mockingbird. The mockingbird represents true goodness and innocence that should always be protected.
Themes of Growing Up
in To Kill a Mockingbird
In the three years covered by
To Kill a Mockingbird, Scout and Jem grow up. At the start of the book they are innocents, with an uncomplicated sense of what’s good ( Atticus , the people of Maycomb) and what’s evil ( Boo Radley). By the end of the book, the children have lost their innocence and gained a more complex understanding of the world, in which bad and good are present and visible in almost everyone. As the children grow into the adult world, though, they don’t just accept what they see. They question what doesn’t make sense to them—prejudice, hatred, and violence. So while To Kill a Mockingbird shows three children as they lose their innocence, it also uses their innocence to look freshly at the world of Maycomb and criticize its flaws.
Like every kid growing up, Scout attends school for the first time. But rather than contribute to her education, Scout’s school is depicted as rigid to the point of idiocy, with teachers who criticize students who got on early start on reading and hate the Nazis but can’t see the racism present in their own town. To Kill a Mockingbird does not so much explore standardized school education as condemn it, showing how it emphasizes rote facts and policies designed to create conformist children rather than promote creative critical thinking, sympathy, and mutual understanding across racial and socioeconomic boundaries.will
Themes of The Law in To Kill a Mockingbird
Atticus is a lawyer, and the book is centered around his representation of Tom Robinson. Although Atticus loses the trial, he believes strongly that despite social inequalities, all men are equal in the courtroom. He includes this information in his closing statements to the jury, and during his later discussions with Jem and Scout regarding jury selection and the trial process, makes this statement again. Atticus believes that progress towards racial equality can and will be made in the courtroom.
In addition, although he believes powerfully in upholding the law, Atticus understands that it must be bent in certain situations. For example, Bob Ewell is permitted to hunt even in the off season because the town authorities know that if he is prevented from hunting, his children might starve. In addition, at the end of the novel, the law would require Boo Radley to be placed on trial to determine whether he killed Bob Ewell is self defense or not. However, Atticus understands, as does Heck Tate and Scout, that Boo should not be forced to experience powerful public attention or criticism. Therefore, it is necessary to bend the law in this case to protect Boo.
Themes ofMORALITY AND ETHICS in To Kill a Mockingbird
MORALITY AND ETHICS
Atticus thinks that everyone deserves a fair trial. Maycomb thinks that only white men do. Scout thinks that her father is right. Maycomb thinks that her father is wrong. So, who’s more moral—the community standard, or the individual conscience? Where do the rights of the community end and the rights of the individual begin? To Kill a Mockingbird examines the conflict between the individual and the community. On the one hand, standing up for your beliefs can get you into a lot of trouble. But if your beliefs are moral, then you just might end up dragging the whole community in a more satisfactory direction. After all, a community’s morals are the sum of what its individuals believe.
THE IMPORTANCE OF MORAL EDUCATION
Because exploration of the novel’s larger moral questions takes place within the perspective of children, the education of children is necessarily involved in the development of all of the novel’s themes. In a sense, the plot of the story charts Scout’s moral education, and the theme of how children are educated—how they are taught to move from innocence to adulthood—recurs throughout the novel (at the end of the book, Scout even says that she has learned practically everything except algebra). This theme is explored most powerfully through the relationship between Atticus and his children, as he devotes himself to instilling a social conscience in Jem and Scout. The scenes at school provide a direct counterpoint to Atticus’s effective education of his children: Scout is frequently confronted with teachers who are either frustratingly unsympathetic to children’s needs or morally hypocritical. As is true of To Kill a Mockingbird’s other moral themes, the novel’s conclusion about education is that the most important lessons are those of sympathy and understanding, and that a sympathetic, understanding approach is the best way to teach these lessons. In this way, Atticus’s ability to put himself in his children’s shoes makes him an excellent teacher, while Miss Caroline’s rigid commitment to the educational techniques that she learned in college makes her ineffective and even dangerous.
Themes of WOMEN AND FEMININITY in To Kill a Mockingbird
WOMEN AND FEMININITY
Being called a girl is about the worst thing possible—or so thinks Scout, the female protagonist of To Kill a Mockingbird. Girls wear frilly pink dresses, and don’t get to play outside, swear, or pretty much do anything fun. And they have to grow up to be ladies, which means being plunged into a confusing world where no one says what they mean. Scout’s in for a big lesson, though: thanks to the examples of radical chicks Aunt Alexandra and Miss Maudie, she learns that being a lady can take as just as much courage as being a wild . Even if you have to wear a dress while doing it.
Themes of Social Inequality in To Kill a Mockingbird
Along with struggling with concepts of good and evil, Scout and Jem spend a great deal of time trying to understand what defines and creates social strata. Scout tends to believe that “folks are just folks”, while Jem is convinced that social standing is related to how long people’s relatives and ancestors have been able to write.
Scout elucidates the town’s social strata quite clearly on her first day at school when Walter Cunningham does not have lunch or lunch money. Her classmates ask her to explain to the teacher why Walter won’t take a loaned quarter to buy lunch, and she lectures the teacher on the Cunningham’s financial situation and how they trade goods for services. Scout and the other children have a very clear understanding of the social inequalities in their town, but see these inequalities as natural and permanent. The Finch family falls rather high up in the social hierarchy, while the Ewell family falls at the bottom. However, this hierarchy only includes white people. Maycomb’s black population fall beneath all white families in Maycomb, including the Ewells, whom Atticus labels as “trash”.
Scout understands this social structure, but doesn’t understand why it is so. She believes that everyone should be treated the same, no matter what family they are from. For instance, when she wants to spend more time with Walter Cunningham,
Aunt Alexandra objects saying no Finch girl should ever consort with a Cunningham. Scout is frustrated by this, as she wants to be able to choose her own friends based on her definition of what makes a good person: moraliB
Symbols of To Kill a Mockingbird
Symbols are objects, characters, figures, and colors used to represent abstract ideas or concepts.
The title of To Kill a Mockingbird has very little literal connection to the plot, but it carries a great deal of symbolic weight in the book. In this story of innocents destroyed by evil, the “mockingbird” comes to represent the idea of innocence. Thus, to kill a mockingbird is to destroy innocence. Throughout the book, a number of characters (Jem, Tom Robinson, Dill, Boo Radley, Mr. Raymond) can be identified as mockingbirds—innocents who have been injured or destroyed through contact with evil. This connection between the novel’s title and its main theme is made explicit several times in the novel: after Tom Robinson is shot, Mr. Underwood compares his death to “the senseless slaughter of songbirds,” and at the end of the book Scout thinks that hurting Boo Radley would be like “shootin’ a mockingbird.” Most important, Miss Maudie explains to Scout: “Mockingbirds don’t do one thing but . . . sing their hearts out for us. That’s why it’s a sin to kill a mockingbird.” That Jem and Scout’s last name is Finch (another type of small bird) indicates that they are particularly vulnerable in the racist world of Maycomb, which often treats the fragile innocence of childhood harshly.
As the novel progresses, the children’s changing attitude toward Boo Radley is an important measurement of their development from innocence toward a grown-up moral perspective. At the beginning of the book, Boo is merely a source of childhood superstition. As he leaves Jem and Scout presents and mends Jem’s pants, he gradually becomes increasingly and intriguingly real to them. At the end of the novel, he becomes fully human to Scout, illustrating that she has developed into a sympathetic and understanding individual. Boo, an intelligent child ruined by a cruel father, is one of the book’s most important mockingbirds; he is also an important symbol of the good that exists within people. Despite the pain that Boo has suffered, the purity of his heart rules his interaction with the children. In saving Jem and Scout from Bob Ewell, Boo proves the ultimate symbol of boo
I’m attracted to you, but not physically – Erica to Laycon (Video)
BBNaija housemate, Erica has opened up to Laycon that she is not in any way attracted to him physically, but mentally.
She made this known to the rapper during a discussion yesterday after he approached her to reiterate his interest in her.
Recall that Laycon had told Erica on Tuesday that he had feelings for her and cares about being in a relationship with her.
However, hours later, Erica and Kiddwaya had a steamy session in bed.
Seeking clarifications on Tuesday night, Laycon approached Erica to reveal her feelings for him.
During the conversation, Erica told Laycon that she is only mentally attracted to him but physically attracted to Kiddwaya.
“I’M MENTALLY ATTRACTED TO YOU BUT ATTRACTED TO KIDDWAYA PHYSICALLY. I’VE DECIDED NOT TO OVERTHINK ANYTHING WITH KIDDWAYA ,I JUST WANT TO BE HAPPY. LET’S JUST GO BACK TO HOW WE WERE BUT I HATE MAKING OTHERS FEEL BAD.”
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10 African Countries With the Most Number of Universities
Brief History of African Universities
It is being observed that those individuals who are intellectuals, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbour them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce. While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus.
One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.
Among those works that focused on higher education under British influence, in which Eric Ashby is often referred to as a classic.
More recent works include that of Okunor, which focused on West African countries under strong British and American influence such as Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. A significant additional work on higher education is the Eastern and Southern African Universities Research Programme that was conducted in 1984. Such studies commonly view the colonial era as the beginning of modern higher education in Africa and do not refer to the higher education institutions that existed before colonialism.
It is well known that people who are scholars, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbor them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce.
While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus. One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.
African Universities Ranking Among Others
There are many different rankings and league tables, and several African universities consistently per population. The University Rankings focuses on four broad areas that they feel are of particular interest to prospective students: research, teaching, employability, and international outlook.
These four key areas are assessed using six indicators, with each given a different percentage weighting. A strong emphasis is placed on
- Academic reputation
- Faculty/student ratio
- Citations per faculty
- Employer reputation
- International student ratio
- International staff ratio
The World University Rankings places a strong emphasis on reputation. The ‘academic reputation’ is assessed through a global survey completed by academics, and the ’employer reputation’ is assessed through a survey of employers worldwide. While the rankings also score research citations, smaller and specialist institutions can be included in this ranking if they have a strong global reputation.
Notably, South Africa has four universities ranked among the top 200 in Africa;however, here are a few African universities that made it under the top 1000 in the world.
|S/N||University||Country||African Ranking||World Ranking|
|1||University of Cape Town||South Africa||1||136th|
|2||University of the Witwatersrand||South Africa||2||194th|
|3||Stellenbosch University||South Africa||3||259th|
|6||University of Kwazulu-Natal||South Africa||6||472th|
|8||University of Ibadan||Nigeria||8||524th|
|10||Suez Canal University||Egypt||10||586th|
Top 10 African Countries with the Most Universities
University education is more than the next level in the learning process; it is a critical component of human development worldwide. It provides not only the high-level skills necessary for every labour market but also the training essential for teachers, doctors, nurses, civil servants, engineers, humanists, entrepreneurs, scientists, social scientists, and a myriad of other personnel. It is these trained individuals who develop the capacity and analytical skills that drive local economies, support civil society, teach children, lead capable governments, and make critical decisions that affect entire societies.
An educated populace is vital in today’s world, with the convergent impacts of globalization, the increasing importance of knowledge as a primary driver of growth, and the information and communication revolution. Knowledge accumulation and application have become significant factors in economic development and are increasingly at the core of a country’s competitive advantage in the global economy.
The combination of increased computing power, diminishing prices of hardware and software, improvement of wireless and satellite technologies, and reduced telecommunication costs have all but removed the space and time barriers to information access and exchange.
|S/N||Country||Number Of Universities||Country By Population|
|4||Democratic Republic of Congo||60||89,561,456|
These countries simultaneously raised their rates of participation in higher education. Indeed, the countries that benefited most from integration with the world economy achieved the most marked increases in educational levels.
Besides, there is growing evidence that university education, through its role in empowering domestic constituencies, building institutions, and nurturing favourable regulatory frameworks and governance structures, is vital to a country’s efforts. This is to increase social capital and to promote social cohesion, which is proving to be an essential determinant of economic growth and development.
Benefits of Studying in an African University
Study and learn during a Different way
Often those studying in Africa will experience a completely new way of teaching. this will be daunting, but it’ll also open your mind to new ways of learning.
Opportunity to make unforgettable experiences
Study shows that folks are happier and feel more fulfilled once they spend on experience than once they buy new things. once you consider the items that bring you the foremost joy, they’re usually memorable experiences. you’ll get tons of that from studying in Africa
African Degrees are well respected It
If pursuing knowledgeable career is your goal, international education and knowledge on the CV will assist you stand out. it’ll also represent you as someone who is up for a challenge. Especially now that African universities are climbing the ranks in world university rankings
Opportunity to get unique ideas and opportunities
Most of the successful businesses in Africa and Asia were found out by people that gained international exposure and education. Econet, Celtel, IrokoTv, Jumia, and more. By studying in Africa, if you’re curious, you’ll find new ways to unravel a drag back home.
Opportunity to find out a replacement language
Studying during a country that speaks a special official language as yours is among the simplest ways to find out or brush up a replacement language. Imagine being close to communicate in German, French, or Mandarin. that would are available handy along your career path. Africa is diverse when it involves languages. All you’ve got to try to to is pick those that interest you the foremost .
Studying during a foreign country is different from tourism
Travel for a vacation is extremely different from settling during a foreign country for a yearlong study. you’ll get to experience your home of study for a more extended period and familiarize yourself with local knowledge like what tourist traps to avoid and the way to urge the foremost out of your new city.
Opportunity to experience the rich African culture
Yes, food. you only haven’t any idea about the variability of food that exists out there. you’ll never know until you venture out. you’ll even discover your new favourite.
Opportunity to require advantage of lower tuition fees
This, of course, depends on where you study in Africa. However, if you select a location in many parts of continental Europe, Asia, and Latin America , you’ll find it’s impossible to review at a highly reputed university without stepping into debt.
You will meet a various range of individuals
You will experience exposure to several differing types of individuals won’t only assist you to develop your people skills, but it’ll also offer you a firmer knowledge of others.
Enjoy international student discounts
Many famous Universities in Africa destinations offer student discounts for various activities, from transportation, bookstores to movie tickets and museums. you only need to spend wisely.
Opportunity to form lifelong friends
You will quickly develop the attitude that we are during this , along side other international students. this will end in lifelong friendships, even with the local students. you’ll not love every single person you meet, but the probabilities are that you’ll meet a minimum of one lifelong friend.
You will gain a more excellent knowledge of various cultures
As you observe and learn why people from different cultures do things the way they are doing , your emotional intelligence develops. you’ll learn to be less judgmental.
Opportunity to become spontaneous and adventurous
Being during a foreign environment ignites your adventurous nature. You tend to require to explore your new environment. Open your mind up to new experiences and sights and learn an excellent deal while having some fun.
Opportunity to explore together with your spare time
In between lectures and lab sessions, studying Africa should leave you with many time to explore. Whether you’re one for visiting iconic landmarks, trying new foods, or bartering at local markets, there’s sure to be a far better way of paying some time than scrolling through Facebook!
There is a robust involve strengthening universities and research within the new Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025. Its objectives include boosting postgraduate and post-doctoral education and growing competitive awards to nurture young academics, more international research cooperation, and expanding centres of excellence and institutional links.
Tertiary education and research are given more stress than in previous education statements, reflecting continental realization of their importance to growth and development.
The Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025, or CESA 16-25, is driven by a desire to realize quality education and training that gives the continent with “efficient human resources adapted to African core values and thus ready to achieve the vision and ambitions of the African Union.”
Strategic Objectives of African Universities
Revitalize the teaching profession to make sure quality and relevance in the least levels of education.
To build, rehabilitate, and support education infrastructure and develop policies that ensure a permanent stress-free and conducive learning environment for all to expand access to quality education in the least levels, including informal and non-formal settings.
Harness the capacity of ICT to enhance access, quality, and management of education and training systems.
Ensure acquisition of requisite knowledge and skills also as improved completion rates altogether groups through harmonization processes across all levels for national and regional integration.
Accelerate processes resulting in gender parity and equity.
Launch comprehensive and useful literacy programs across the continent.
Strengthen the science and arithmetic curricula in youth training and disseminate knowledge domain and culture in society.
Expand technical and vocational opportunities at both secondary and tertiary levels and strengthen linkages between the planet of labor and education and training systems.
Revitalize and expand tertiary education, research, and innovation to deal with continental challenges and promote global competitiveness.
Promote peace education and conflict prevention and determination in the least levels of education and for all age groups.
Improve management of education systems and build capacity for data collection, management, analysis, communication, and use.
Create a coalition of stakeholders to facilitate and support activities resulting from the implementation of CESA 16-25. Of importance to education is that the got to train well-qualified teachers and deliver continuous professional development.
Good university programs should integrate entrepreneurship and leadership training in their curriculum, in order that they produce graduates who have the soft-skills to play an impactful role in Africa’s economic transformation, and who begin not as job-seekers but as job creators. Eventually, aligning education to the stress of the market requires that we measure how successful universities fuse the lecture hall with the planet of labor .
Furthermore, the African countries with the foremost universities span across ten countries, from Uganda within the east to Nigeria within the west, Morocco within the north to South Africa at the southernmost tip of the continent.
In the University rankings, Two of South Africa’s universities feature within the top 200 of the worldwide rankings: the University of Cape Town is Africa’s top university, sitting at joint 136th position, while the University of Witwatersrand occupies the joint 194th spot.
Overall, Egypt and South Africa are the 2 best represented African countries within the ranking, with 20 and 10 universities each. Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa all have universities within the top 500 of the worldwide ranking. Finally, the ranking rates university performance using 13 different indicators; a number of which are measuring teaching, research, research impact, innovation, and international outlook.
In summary, variety is that the spice of life. Why not take that bold step towards gaining admission to review in Africa. YOUR SUCCESS MATTERS!
How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services
Today we are using generated company symbols to properly mark your social networks.
If you still do not have a logo and corporate identity, then our Logaster generator will always help to develop them quickly and efficiently.
Why should your business be represented on social networks?
Social networks are an integral part of the modern Internet, they have a huge audience and will become worthy platforms for promoting your brand. So, why does your company have to have pages on popular social networks?
Internet reputation management. Corporate social media accounts will help you post the most current, relevant and reliable information about the company, cover its activities from the best perspectives, which will positively affect your reputation;
Strengthen industry influence. Social networks are considered to be a powerful networking tool – creating useful links in the industry that interests you. Owing to this, you can quickly identify and collect useful information and connections for potential customers , associates, staff, investors;
Expanding audience reach. With the help of social networks, you will be able to significantly increase the number of points of contact with the target audience, a significant part of which may want to purchase your goods or services;
Improving customer loyalty. By regularly visiting your corporate accounts, you can work with customer reviews, complaints and suggestions. Prompt feedback will help you make your audience much more loyal and positive;
More effective search engine promotion. Conscientious maintenance of pages on social networks with frequent updating of unique content will significantly improve the position of your company’s website in search engine delivery (Google, Yandex);
Benefits for other marketing tools. Proper use of social media will bring an additional effect for solving other marketing tasks of your brand – from a corporate blog and electronic mailings to webinars or offline events.
More reasons can be found here.
What social networks should be made out?
The choice of the channel with which you can “reach out” to the target audience, and the competent design of the profile is an important and necessary marketing move.
The most popular among businesses in the CIS are sites such as Instagram, Facebook, VK, Odnoklassniki, YouTube. Here are some tips for choosing social networks for maintaining and promoting:
Which social networks should be emphasized largely depends on the subject of the project. For example, if your business is associated with any kind of creativity, then social networks such as YouTube (for creating video content), Instagram (photos of products, especially designer clothes, clothes, hand-made), SoundCloud (writing music) are best suited for its promotion.
If you have a typical company, VK and Facebook will provide the best response to the “basic” social networks. As for the Instagram service, it has proven itself for various areas of online business, including online stores (especially with goods for women), creative services, etc.
Closely monitor web analytics – it will help determine which services the largest number of visitors and purchases come to you from. By default, VK, Facebook, Odnoklassniki are considered the most useful among our entrepreneurs, followed by Twitter, Instagram and Youtube.
At the same time, we recommend not to “spray” on all available social networks, but to focus on those that lead major customers. It will be useful to study the pages of competitors, which can suggest some useful details. Of course, this advice is for those projects that already have a small traffic to the site.
You can also create corporate accounts in all specified social networks, arrange them, but only 2-3 of them are actively promoted and updated – the most effective for you. So you can save your time and at the same time not miss potential customers.
A professional publishing and communication strategy for every channel is equally essential. For example, Facebook and VK are ideally suited for posting informational content (posts, articles, news), working with reviews, orders and customer requests, targeted advertising, etc.
In turn, Instagram ideally sells goods or services with photos, and on YouTube you can effectively post video reviews and presentations of your products, instructions.
Proper design of social networks – why is it so important?
It is not enough just to create company accounts in social networks, you also need to issue them in a high-quality manner. Proper branding plays a very important role, since any Internet user is now simply overloaded with information, especially in social networks. There is an opinion that an ordinary person sees hundreds of logos of various brands every day – both online and in reality.
Do not believe? Then just look back on the sides, go to your favourite sites and count the number of corporate symbols surrounding you.
Careful design of social networks will help to stand out against the background of numerous visual “spam”, and it will also provide your business with a number of advantages:
With it, you can attract the attention of users, help them better know your brand, highlight it against the background of symbols of other companies and competitors. The presence of a logo or other elements of corporate identity will allow the audience not to miss important news, promotions or other updates to your company;
You will be able to create a more holistic image of the company by branding social networks. Such sites are very important points of contact with customers, so the use of corporate identity will help you to remain consistent, while maintaining the integrity of your image in the eyes of the audience;
Branded content looks more attractive than regular photos, videos or text. With it, you can increase customer loyalty, gently advertise your brand, “accustom” them to your materials – as a result, they will respond positively to them by default.
As you can see, the competent design of social networks is of great importance for any enterprise, helping to establish a closer relationship with customers, which will positively affect the development of your business.
Social Media Branding Tips
So, you have developed a logo and corporate identity, created pages on social networks, defined their main goals (promotion of goods / services, work with reviews, etc.). Now is the time to proceed to the design of your accounts, following these tips:
Be consistent with the style of the pages, everywhere use the same fonts, color schemes, graphic elements, etc. Only in this way will you achieve that people will recognize your corporate colors even without a logo or company name;
The dimensions and other parameters of your logo should be adapted to the requirements of each individual social network. Do not use the logo of the same size for all sites, as it can be displayed there in cropped or stretched form. By the way, the Logaster service will help you immediately download various logo options of all necessary dimensions for popular social networks;
If the space on the avatar is limited, then it is better to use a simplified version of the logo, for example, without a text warehouse;
Pay special attention to the cover and photo (logo) of the account, because it is on them that the first look of each visitor is directed. It is important that they have the same style and color scheme with your corporate identity. You will be able to find a suitable caption for the theme of your business on photo stocks, or you can order it from a designer;
We recommend that you follow identical positioning and design when designing pages on different social networks. For example, if your logo on Facebook is in the lower right corner, then try to place it in about the same place and on other platforms (if possible);
You can also put any short text on the cover of your account – especially if it is really important / interesting information, for example, about a promotion, and you want users to see it first.
Having completed the design of the page, be sure to test it on all possible devices – PC, laptop, tablet, smartphone, etc. Make sure that all key elements look equally good at any screen resolution, not stretched or cropped. Any seeming trifle can significantly affect the reputation of your company and the loyalty of its audience.
Next, we will tell you how to upload your logo to the pages of popular social networks.
How to add an avatar (profile photo) on social networks
Below we consider the process of uploading a logo to Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Vkontakte, OK.ru, LinkedIn, YouTube and Pinterest. Make sure you have the right size logo versions.
Image sizes for social networks (2020):
Image to external links: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 630 px
Cover: 820 x 312 px
Profile Photo: 170 x 170 px
In contact with
Image to external links: 537 x 240 px
Picture for post: 700 x 500 px
Profile photo: 200 x 500 px
Tweet picture: 1024 x 675 px
Cover: 1500 x 500 px
Profile photo: 400 x 400 px
Post picture: 1080 x 1080 px
Profile photo: 110 x 110 px
Image over video: 1280 x 720 px
Channel cover: 2560 x 1440 px
Profile photo: 800 x 800 px
Picture for pin: 1000 x 1500 px
Profile photo: 165 x 165 px
Image to external links:: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 1200 px
Cover: 1584 x 768 px
Profile photo: 300 x 300 px
Picture for post: 1680 x 1680 px
Cover: 1340 x 320 px
Profile Photo: 190 x 190 px
How to upload an image
First, make sure that you have a logo in PNG format of the right size – you can add it to your Facebook page.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Facebook account and go to your page.
2. Move the cursor over the place for the photo and click on the camera icon.
3. Select “Upload Photo”.
4. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. If necessary, the image can be cropped and arranged in accordance with the plan.
5. Click “Save.”
How to add or change a cover:
1. Go to your page, hover over the cover image and click “Change Cover”.
2. Select Upload Photo.
3. Select the logo file and click Open. Position the image as you see fit.
4. Click Save.
Please note that although your profile photo is displayed on the user’s page as a square, in the news feed it takes the form of a circle. If you have a square logo, reduce its size so that the corners are not cut and it is not too crowded in a circle.
File size requirements are listed here.
Note: unlike Facebook, where business accounts are created on the basis of personal accounts, Twitter needs to have a separate page for the company or project.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Twitter account and open your page by clicking on your name.
2. Click the Edit profile button on the right side of the page and click on your photo. Click Select Photo.
3. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. Position the logo as you see fit.
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.
How to add or change the image in the header:
1. Go to your page and click the “Edit Profile” button.
2. Click on the header and select the Add header option.
3. Select a file and click “Open.”
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.
In contact with
File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a VK group and community:
1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
If you do not have an avatar yet, the text “Upload a photo” will be highlighted in its place;
(if the image is already available, then just point it and the pop-up menu will offer you to update the photo).
2. Click on it and upload the logo;
3. Make sure that when reducing the avatar to a round version, your logo does not cease to be recognizable. To do this, select the desired area by clicking on “Change thumbnail”.
How to add or change cover art in a VK group and community:
1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Go to community settings;
3, Click on “Download” opposite “Community Cover;
4. Download the logo;
Make sure that the logo is not ridiculously cropped.
File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a group in Odnoklassniki:
1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Hover over the profile picture and click on “Add Image” from the pop-up menu;
3. Download the logo.
File size requirements are listed here.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Instagram account from your phone. Open your profile by clicking on the corresponding icon.
2. Click on the profile photo and select “Upload Photo”. Select a file with a logo and press “Select”.
3. On the mobile device, click “Edit Profile” and select “Change Profile Photo”. After you select the file, click “Finish.”
File size requirements are listed here.
How to add a logo to your LinkedIn company page:
1. On your profile page, click on the photo thumbnail and select “Change” in the “Company Page” tab.
2. Click the “Edit” button and click on the “Edit Page” line.
3. Scroll to the “Company Logo” section. Click the “Edit” button and add / change the logo. You can also change the location of the logo by dragging it to the desired location.
4. Click “Save.”
File size requirements are listed here and here.
How to add or change a profile photo (channel icon):
1. Log into your YouTube account.
2. Click on the line My Channel, located under the profile photo in the upper right.
3. Hover over an existing photo and click on the edit icon.
4. Click “Edit” and select the logo file. Position it as you see fit.
How to add or change channel background image:
1. Going to My channel, hover over the background image and click on the edit (or add) icon.
2. Download the file and see how it is displayed on various devices. Position it as you see fit.
3. Click “Select.”
File size requirements are listed here.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Pinterest account.
2. Click on the ellipsis at the top, then click on the “Settings” button. Scroll down to the Profile section.
3. Click “Change Image,” then select the logo file. Ra
arrange it as you see fit.
4. Click “Save Settings.”
Useful services for designing social networks
We have prepared a small list of services that will be useful to you when designing social networks. Bookmark them so you don’t lose:
Logaster – creating and downloading logos optimized for the requirements of social networks.
Crello – create designs for social media covers.
Sproutsociale – optimization of the size of finished images to the requirements of social networks.
Pablo.buffer.com – search for images for covers and overlay text on them.
Pixabay is a free photo stock for finding cover pictures.
Pexels is a bank of free photos for creating covers and posts on social networks.
Unsplash is another photo stock for social networks.
Jaymantri – abstract pictures for creating cover or post backgrounds.
Designspiration – search for inspiration.
Fonts.google.com – a collection of free fonts.
Coolors.co – collections of color schemes that will be useful in the design of posts and covers.
Google.com/test/mobile-friendly – check page optimization for mobile devices.
Representative offices in social networks significantly stimulate the development of the company, making it possible to increase its recognition and increase the number of points of contact with customers. Following these tips, you will create really powerful marketing tools that will help you attract many potential customers from popular social media.
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