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Analysis of the poem “Dejection: An Ode”



Dejection: An Ode

Late, late yestreen I saw the new Moon,

With the old Moon in her arms;

And I fear, I fear, my Master dear!

We shall have a deadly storm.

            (Ballad of Sir Patrick Spence)


              1Well! If the Bard was weather-wise, who made

              2     The grand old ballad of Sir Patrick Spence,

              3     This night, so tranquil now, will not go hence

              4Unroused by winds, that ply a busier trade

              5Than those which mould yon cloud in lazy flakes,

              6Or the dull sobbing draft, that moans and rakes

              7Upon the strings of this {AE}olian lute,

              8           Which better far were mute.

              9      For lo! the New-moon winter-bright!

            10      And overspread with phantom light,

            11      (With swimming phantom light o’erspread

            12      But rimmed and circled by a silver thread)

            13I see the old Moon in her lap, foretelling

            14      The coming-on of rain and squally blast.

            15And oh! that even now the gust were swelling,

            16      And the slant night-shower driving loud and fast!

            17Those sounds which oft have raised me, whilst they awed,

            18           And sent my soul abroad,

            19Might now perhaps their wonted impulse give,

            20Might startle this dull pain, and make it move and live!


            21A grief without a pang, void, dark, and drear,

            22      A stifled, drowsy, unimpassioned grief,

            23      Which finds no natural outlet, no relief,

            24           In word, or sigh, or tear

            25O Lady! in this wan and heartless mood,

            26To other thoughts by yonder throstle woo’d,

            27      All this long eve, so balmy and serene,

            28Have I been gazing on the western sky,

            29      And its peculiar tint of yellow green:

            30And still I gaze–and with how blank an eye!

            31And those thin clouds above, in flakes and bars,

            32That give away their motion to the stars;

            33Those stars, that glide behind them or between,

            34Now sparkling, now bedimmed, but always seen:

            35Yon crescent Moon, as fixed as if it grew

            36In its own cloudless, starless lake of blue;

            37I see them all so excellently fair

            38I see, not feel, how beautiful they are!


            39      My genial spirits fail;

            40      And what can these avail

            41To lift the smothering weight from off my breast?

            42      It were a vain endeavour,

            43      Though I should gaze for ever

            44On that green light that lingers in the west:

            45I may not hope from outward forms to win

            46The passion and the life, whose fountains are within.


            47O Lady! we receive but what we give,

            48And in our life alone does Nature live:

            49Ours is her wedding garment, ours her shroud!

            50      And would we aught behold, of higher worth,

            51Than that inanimate cold world allowed

            52To the poor loveless ever-anxious crowd,

            53      Ah! from the soul itself must issue forth

            54A light, a glory, a fair luminous cloud

            55           Enveloping the Earth–

            56And from the soul itself must there be sent

            57      A sweet and potent voice, of its own birth,

            58Of all sweet sounds the life and element!


            59O pure of heart! thou need’st not ask of me

            60What this strong music in the soul may be!

            61What, and wherein it doth exist,

            62This light, this glory, this fair luminous mist,

            63This beautiful and beauty-making power.

            64      Joy, virtuous Lady! Joy that ne’er was given,

            65Save to the pure, and in their purest hour,

            66Life, and Life’s effluence, cloud at once and shower,

            67Joy, Lady! is the spirit and the power,

            68Which wedding Nature to us gives in dower

            69      A new Earth and new Heaven,

            70Undreamt of by the sensual and the proud–

            71Joy is the sweet voice, Joy the luminous cloud–

            72           We in ourselves rejoice!

            73And thence flows all that charms or ear or sight,

            74      All melodies the echoes of that voice,

            75All colours a suffusion from that light.


            76There was a time when, though my path was rough,

            77      This joy within me dallied with distress,

            78And all misfortunes were but as the stuff

            79      Whence Fancy made me dreams of happiness:

            80For hope grew round me, like the twining vine,

            81And fruits, and foliage, not my own, seemed mine.

            82But now afflictions bow me down to earth:

            83Nor care I that they rob me of my mirth;

            84           But oh! each visitation

            85Suspends what nature gave me at my birth,

            86      My shaping spirit of Imagination.

            87For not to think of what I needs must feel,

            88      But to be still and patient, all I can;

            89And haply by abstruse research to steal

            90      From my own nature all the natural man–

            91      This was my sole resource, my only plan:

            92Till that which suits a part infects the whole,

            93And now is almost grown the habit of my soul.


            94Hence, viper thoughts, that coil around my mind,

            95           Reality’s dark dream!

            96I turn from you, and listen to the wind,

            97      Which long has raved unnoticed. What a scream

            98Of agony by torture lengthened out

            99That lute sent forth! Thou Wind, that rav’st without,

          100      Bare crag, or mountain-tairn, or blasted tree,

          101Or pine-grove whither woodman never clomb,

          102Or lonely house, long held the witches’ home,

          103      Methinks were fitter instruments for thee,

          104Mad Lutanist! who in this month of showers,

          105Of dark-brown gardens, and of peeping flowers,

          106Mak’st Devils’ yule, with worse than wintry song,

          107The blossoms, buds, and timorous leaves among.

          108      Thou Actor, perfect in all tragic sounds!

          109Thou mighty Poet, e’en to frenzy bold!

          110           What tell’st thou now about?

          111           ‘Tis of the rushing of an host in rout,

          112      With groans, of trampled men, with smarting wounds–

          113At once they groan with pain, and shudder with the cold!

          114But hush! there is a pause of deepest silence!

          115      And all that noise, as of a rushing crowd,

          116With groans, and tremulous shudderings–all is over–

          117      It tells another tale, with sounds less deep and loud!

          118           A tale of less affright,

          119           And tempered with delight,

          120As Otway’s self had framed the tender lay,

          121           ‘Tis of a little child

          122           Upon a lonesome wild,

          123Nor far from home, but she hath lost her way:

          124And now moans low in bitter grief and fear,

          125And now screams loud, and hopes to make her mother hear.


          126’Tis midnight, but small thoughts have I of sleep:

          127Full seldom may my friend such vigils keep!

          128Visit her, gentle Sleep! with wings of healing,

          129      And may this storm be but a mountain-birth,

          130May all the stars hang bright above her dwelling,

          131      Silent as though they watched the sleeping Earth!

          132           With light heart may she rise,

          133           Gay fancy, cheerful eyes,

          134      Joy lift her spirit, joy attune her voice;

          135To her may all things live, from pole to pole,

          136Their life the eddying of her living soul!

          137      O simple spirit, guided from above,

          138Dear Lady! friend devoutest of my choice,

          139Thus mayest thou ever, evermore rejoice.

synopsis of of the poem Dejection: An Ode

Stanza 1 (Lines 1-20)

Well! If the poet, who wrote the grand old ballad of Sir Patrick Spence, was correct in his forecast of weather, this night, which is so calm at this time, will not pass without being distributed by winds which are more active than those which have broken up that cloud into slow moving fragments or than the dull, melancholic, breeze which is producing mournful sounds and which gently touches the strings of this lute on which the god of wind is playing and which should have been silent. For behold! the new moon is wintry bright. It is covered by a pale ghostly light which seems to be floating over it. But the moon has an edge of a silvery colour all around it. I see the old moon in the lap of the new, and it foretells the coming of rain and storm which will blow furiously. And oh! already is the wind developing into a storm and rain has started falling in a slanting direction. The rain drops are falling rapidly and are producing a loud sound. The sounds of the rain and storm have often raised my spirits in the past, though at the same time they created a terrifying impression on me and send my mind wandering out of doors. It is possible that these sounds might produce in me their customary thrill. They might awaken this pain which benumbs me and might lend some movement to it.

Stanza 11 (Lines 21-38)

Mine is a grief which does not cause any piercing sensation. It is empty, thick and dull. It is a suppressed, sleepy kind of grief that causes no excitement and that finds no natural outlet or relief in words, or sighs or tears. O Lady! I have been gazing on the western sky and its peculiar hue of yellow green throughout this evening which was so peaceful and sweet, and I have been in a cheerless and spiritless mood. The song of the throstle singing over there has been inducing in me thoughts of other things. And I am still gazing and I am doing so with a perfectly vacant eye. I am gazing at those thin clouds which appear in fragments and which here and there, look like parallel lines. Although it is the clouds that are moving, it seems that the stars behind them are in motion. The stars appear to be floating behind clouds and sometimes between clouds. When the stars are not screened by the clouds, they look bright; when the clouds cover them, their light becomes dim, but they continue to be visible even then. The thin semi circular moon over there seems to be fixed, as if it has its root in that portion of the blue sky where there are neither clouds nor stars. I see all these objects of Nature looking so beautiful and lovely. But although I see their beauty, I dont feel it (because my heart is in the grip of a grief which has rendered me completely cheerless and spiritless).

Stanza 111 (Lines 39-46)

I have lost all happiness and joy and my spirits are now drooping. All the beautiful objects of nature are unable to remove the overwhelming weight of grief from my heart. Even if I were to keep gazing for ever at the beautiful green light that seems to stay on in the Western sky, it would be a futile effort because I would not draw any comfort from it. The heart itself is the real source of excitement and animation. When the inner source of excitement and animation has dried up, I can not expect to experience these feelings by gazing at the beauty of the external objects.

Stanza 1v (Lines 47-58)

O Lady! We get from nature what we have transferred to it from our own hearts. Nature seems to be full of life, because we endow it with our own life. If we find nature in a joyful and festive mood, it is because we are ourselves in that mood. The objects of nature are cold and lifeless. If the poor, lifeless, careworn people of the world want to see anything of a high or noble quality in nature, their own soul must send forth a sweet and powerful voice which will endow the sounds of nature with sweetness.

Stanza v (Lines 59-75)

O pure hearted Lady! You need not ask me what the nature of this sweet and powerful voice in the soul is. Nor is it necessary to for you to ask me what the nature of this light, this lustre, and this radiance is and in what it has its existence. This light or this glory is not only beautiful in itself but it enables a man to create beautiful things. The sources of this light or glory, O pure hearted Lady! is joy in the heart. This joy is given by nature to no one except to the pure hearted people in their purest moments of life. It is the essence of life and issues forth from the vitality of human being. Only the purest hearted people are the recipients of this unique gift if nature, namely joy. This joy enables them to see a new earth and a new heaven which the vulgar and proud persons cannot even dream of. Joy is the source of that sweet voice; joy is the souce of that bright light. It is because of the joy in our own hearts that we feel happy. All the sweet sounds that delight the ear and all the beautiful sights which delight the eyes flow from that joy in our hearts. All music is an echo of that sweet voice (the source of which is the joy in our hearts) and all beautiful paintings are a reflection of that light (which flows from the joy in our hearts).

Stanza v1 (Lines 76-93)

There was a time when, though there were difficulties in my way, the joy in my heart enabled me to make light of my suffering. In those days, even my misfortunes served merely as material for my fancy to weave visions of delight. That was the time when hope grew around me like a climbing plant growing around a tree. The pleasure even of hopes which did not belong to me seemed in those days to be my own (just as the leaves and fruits of a plant growing around a tree seem to belong to the tree itself). But now the sorrows of life have crushed me and brought me from the upper regions down to the earth. Nor do I feel sorry that these misfortunes deprive me of my joy. But what grieves me is that each fit of depression renders my inborn gift of the creative power of imagination inoperative. All that I can do now is to remain silent and patient under the stress of my incapacity to give poetic expression to my deepest feelings. The gift of poetic imagination with which I was endowed by nature is being suppressed by my philosophical and metaphysical tendencies. The gift of poetic imagination was my only treasure in life, the only quality on which my life was based. But my metaphysical tendencies which were only a part of my mental make up have weakened and crushed my real nature which was poetically constituted. Now metaphysical thinking has taken almost complete possession of my soul and become a habit of the mind.

Stanza v11 (Lines 94-125)

O poisonous thoughts which have enveloped my mind and which are like a fearful dream of reality! I dismiss you. I turn my attention from you and listen to the wind which has been raging without my having taken any notice of it. The sound produced by the wind striking the strings of the lute is like the prolong scream of a human being who is being tortured and who cries in his agony. You wind, who are blowing furiously outside, it would be much better if you, instead of playing upon the lute, were to blow against a bare rock, a mountain lake, a lightning struck tree, a high pine grove which no woodman has ever set foot, or a lonely house which has long been believed to be haunted by evil spirits. You are a reckless musician playing upon the lute. The sounds that you are producing are worse than those which are heard during the bleak months of winter. It seems as if you are celebrating a devil’s Christmas among the blossoms, buds and tremulous leaves in this rainy season when the garden looks dark brown and the flower peep from behind the leaves. You are an actor, able to reproduce fully all sounds of pain and suffering. You are like a powerful poet. You can blow with great fury, thus emulating a frenzied poet. What sounds are you producing now? You are producing sounds similar to those produced by the panicky retreat of a defeated army, with cries of pain of trampled men with painful wounds, groaning in pain and at the same time shuddering with cold. But now there is a pause. There is a brief interval of the deepest possible silence. All that noise similar to the sounds of retreating army, with the groans, trembling and shuddering of trampled soldiers, has ended. Now the wind produces different sounds, sounds which are less deep and less loud, and which express less of fear and something of delight. These sounds are like the pathetic poem written by Thomas Otway about a lost girl roaming about on a lonely stretch of territory, not far from home. The wind produces sometimes sounds of bitter grief and fear and sometimes it screams aloud like that lost girl who hoped that her mother would hear her cries and come to her rescue.

Stanza v111 (Lines 126-139)

It is midnight, but I have almost no thought of sleeping. May my friend have such experiences of sleeplessness only rarely! May soothing sleep descend upon her and make her forget her worries! May this storm be only a kind of mountain birth! May all the stars shine brightly above her house and continue shining in silence as if they were watching the sleeping earth! May she get up from bed with a care free heart! May she feel happy and bright and may her eyes express a cheerful mood! May her spirits be raised by joy and may her voice be sweetened with happiness! May all living creatures from one end of the world to the other dedicate their existence to her! May their existence become a vital force to add to the energy of her spirit! O dear and simple hearted Lady! May you be guided by heaven! You are the most faithful friend of my choice. May you feel happy for ever and ever!

Analysis of the poem DEJECTION: AN ODE by Samuel Taylor Coleridge

One of Coleridge’s more personal and autobiographical poems, “Dejection” was originally a “verse letter” to Sara Hutchinson, a woman with whom Coleridge was desperately in love. Hutchinson is not mentioned directly, however, perhaps because at the time of the poem’s publication Coleridge was (unhappily) married to Sara Fricker. Coleridge was inspired to write it upon hearing the opening lines of Wordsworth’s “Ode: Intimations of Immortality.” In his own poem, Coleridge echoes Wordsworth’s themes of disillusionment in love and the loss of imaginative powers.

In “Dejection: An Ode,” Coleridge also reinvents poetic traditions. His opening quotation is from the “Ballad of Sir Patrick Spence,” yet his poem is given the title of an ode. The ode dates back to classical times as a serious poem concerning itself with a highly-regarded subject, accompanied by a strong attention to details of time and place; the English ballad tradition, on the other hand, was about intense action and emotion. Coleridge blends these two literary traditions into the triumph that is “Dejection: An Ode.” He keeps the general form of the ode, modified from the classical Pindaran ode of 500 BC to the 17th century form of three-part stanzas structured in turn, counter-turn, and stand. The modification does not end there, however, as Coleridge uses irregular lines to make the poem somewhat informal in sound, harking to the ballads of days gone by. That the poem is (at least in part) dedicated to a “Lady” rather than a somber meditation upon a public occasion also divorces it from the ode tradition and places it closer to the English ballad in sensibility.

The motif of the power of nature, which runs throughout much of Coleridge’s work, is a major theme in “Dejection.” In the first stanza of “Dejection,” Coleridge hopes that the Bard in the preface is correct about the moon’s foreshadowing of the weather because Coleridge hopes that a storm can revive him from his paralyzed emotional state. He reflects that in the past, he was able to use his imagination to translate the beauty of the surrounding nature into his own happiness, even when he suffered from sadness. However, Coleridge now acknowledges that the futility of his current wish to rely on nature to change his emotions. Although Coleridge greatly admires and desires to feel as one with nature (see Coleridge’s lamentation of his upbringing in the city and his longing to be in a more natural landscape in “Frost at Midnight”), he realizes that nature and humans are separate and distinct entities.

In “New Moons, Old Ballads, and Prophetic Dialogues in Coleridge’s ‘Dejection: An Ode,” R.A. Benthall states that “the dramatic arc of ‘Dejection’ in large part dramatizes an attempt to see clearly how verbal and phenomenal worlds relate, collide, or whether they interact at all” (613). The conclusion that Coleridge reaches in this poem is that it is the responsibility of humans, not of the surrounding nature, to create and sustain their own internal happiness. However, as the poet-creator of the work, Coleridge is able to move between these two states (nature and the inner life) with ease, suggesting that the two may not be in a cause and effect relationship, but they are indeed equally accessible to the imaginative soul.

The power of imagination/dreams, another recurring motif in Coleridge’s work, is also prominent in “Dejection.” The one thing that Coleridge particularly misses is his power of imagination and the ability to pretend that he is happy. Interestingly, Benthall highlights “the irony implicit in the fact that Coleridge should write a poem about the inability to create” (613). Coleridge’s mention of the healing powers of sleep in the last stanza and his claim that he will not go to sleep tonight (and most likely cannot because of his depression) both suggest that dreams offer a portal to happiness. This implication could be the reason why Coleridge wishes for his beloved Lady to have a peaceful night of sleep


What’s so depressing about nature? Unless it’s being covered in oil, burnt up in a forest fire, or overrun with rampaging bears, most of us find the natural world a soothing and relaxing place
to be. Not our speaker, though. He’s alternatively numb to natural beauty and tormented by ferocious storms. In that aspect, though, “Dejection: an Ode” carries forward the Romantic notion of Nature as a place that both influences
and reflects human emotion —both good and bad. In our speaker’s case, sadly, that’s mainly the bad.


The power of the imagination is a familiar motif in several of Coleridge’s poems. In “Kubla Khan,” Coleridge explores the fantastical creations of the imagination.
In “Dejection: An Ode,” Coleridge laments on the pain an artist suffers when his imagination and creativity are stifled by depression. In “Frost at Midnight,” Coleridge likewise laments the aimlessness of his thoughts of his thought and his lack of originality and creativity on the particular night of the poem’s setting

The imagination is connected to nature and to childhood in Coleridge’s works. Kubla Khan’s “stately pleasure dome” is a thing of imagination, but the reader knows this primarily because it is an inconceivable juxtaposition of natural elements (caves of ice over an underground sunless sea). In “Frost at Midnight” the speaker longs for the imaginative powers of his youth, when he could sit inside a classroom on a bright, hot summer’s day and imagine himself outdoors running through 
the countryside


Here’s a list of things that the speaker seems to love in “Dejection: an Ode”: howling wind, a “Lady,” and… well, that’s about it. The dude is pretty down in the mouth, after all. At the same time, we can cheat a little bit here by poking around in Coleridge’s biography. We know, for example, that he originally intended this poem for one Sara Hutchinson. She was William Wordsworth’s sister-in-law, which made
things kind of awkward. More importantly, she
was also not his wife—which made things really
awkward. The speaker’s dejection, then, seems to have its roots in poor Samuel’s tragic love life, and we get signs of his feelings for Sara throughout the poem.


Several of Coleridge’s poems explore the sources of happiness. In “Dejection: An Ode,” Coleridge acknowledges that he cannot solely rely on his external surroundings in nature to bring him happiness and that he must take responsibility for his emotional state. Nevertheless, in “Frost at Midnight,” “Sonnet: To the River Otter,” and “The Nightingale,” Coleridge describes how having an intimate relationship with nature can have a positive effect on one’s happiness.

Happiness is also to be found in returning to a state of childlike innocence. Gazing upon his baby in “Frost at Midnight,” Coleridge is overwhelmed by the child’s beauty and made dizzyingly happy. LIkewise, it is the days of his youth which make him happy in “Sonnet: To the River Otter.”


Your significant other dumps you. Your favorite sports team loses. Your hamster dies in a terrible vacuuming accident. Let’s face it: there are a million things in this life that can bum you out. But being sad is not a “one size fits all” proposition. On one side of the spectrum, you might just be irked. Let’s say someone stepped on your brand new white kicks and didn’t even say sorry. On the other hand, let’s say that you
realize that you don’t really love the person you’re with, but that you can never be with the person you truly love. In that case, you might bypass “sad” altogether and go straight to “dejected”—just like our speaker does in “Dejection: an Ode.” The emotions he’s feeling aren’t just run-of-the-mill sadness. He’s profoundly down and out, lacking energy, hope, even imagination. That’s a level of dissatisfaction that we hope we only have to read
about in Romantic poems.

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I’m attracted to you, but not physically – Erica to Laycon (Video)




I’m attracted to you, but not physically – erica to laycon (video)

BBNaija housemate, Erica has opened up to Laycon that she is not in any way attracted to him physically, but mentally.

She made this known to the rapper during a discussion yesterday after he approached her to reiterate his interest in her.

Recall that Laycon had told Erica on Tuesday that he had feelings for her and cares about being in a relationship with her.

However, hours later, Erica and Kiddwaya had a steamy session in bed.

Seeking clarifications on Tuesday night, Laycon approached Erica to reveal her feelings for him.

Related:  Download Video: Hellas Verona 2 – 3 Bologna Highlights

During the conversation, Erica told Laycon that she is only mentally attracted to him but physically attracted to Kiddwaya.

Eric said:



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10 African Countries With the Most Number of Universities




10 african countries with the most number of universities

Brief History of African Universities

It is being observed that those individuals who are intellectuals, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbour them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce. While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus.

One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.

Among those works that focused on higher education under British influence, in which Eric Ashby is often referred to as a classic.

More recent works include that of Okunor, which focused on West African countries under strong British and American influence such as Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. A significant additional work on higher education is the Eastern and Southern African Universities Research Programme that was conducted in 1984. Such studies commonly view the colonial era as the beginning of modern higher education in Africa and do not refer to the higher education institutions that existed before colonialism.

It is well known that people who are scholars, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbor them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce.

While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus. One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.

African Universities Ranking Among Others

There are many different rankings and league tables, and several African universities consistently per population. The University Rankings focuses on four broad areas that they feel are of particular interest to prospective students: research, teaching, employability, and international outlook.

These four key areas are assessed using six indicators, with each given a different percentage weighting. A strong emphasis is placed on

  1. Academic reputation
  2. Faculty/student ratio
  3. Citations per faculty
  4. Employer reputation
  5. International student ratio
  6. International staff ratio

The World University Rankings places a strong emphasis on reputation. The ‘academic reputation’ is assessed through a global survey completed by academics, and the ’employer reputation’ is assessed through a survey of employers worldwide. While the rankings also score research citations, smaller and specialist institutions can be included in this ranking if they have a strong global reputation.

Notably, South Africa has four universities ranked among the top 200 in Africa;however, here are a few African universities that made it under the top 1000 in the world.

S/N University Country African Ranking World Ranking
1 University of Cape Town South Africa 1 136th
2 University of the Witwatersrand South Africa 2 194th
3 Stellenbosch University South Africa 3 259th
4 Aswan University Egypt 4 436th
5 Covenant  University Nigeria 5 451th 
6 University  of  Kwazulu-Natal South Africa 6 472th
7 Mansoura University Egypt 7 493th
8 University of Ibadan Nigeria 8 524th
9 North-West University Nigeria 9 557th
10 Suez Canal University Egypt 10 586th

Top 10 African Countries with the Most Universities

University education is more than the next level in the learning process; it is a critical component of human development worldwide. It provides not only the high-level skills necessary for every labour market but also the training essential for teachers, doctors, nurses, civil servants, engineers, humanists, entrepreneurs, scientists, social scientists, and a myriad of other personnel. It is these trained individuals who develop the capacity and analytical skills that drive local economies, support civil society, teach children, lead capable governments, and make critical decisions that affect entire societies.

An educated populace is vital in today’s world, with the convergent impacts of globalization, the increasing importance of knowledge as a primary driver of growth, and the information and communication revolution. Knowledge accumulation and application have become significant factors in economic development and are increasingly at the core of a country’s competitive advantage in the global economy.

The combination of increased computing power, diminishing prices of hardware and software, improvement of wireless and satellite technologies, and reduced telecommunication costs have all but removed the space and time barriers to information access and exchange.

S/N Country Number Of Universities Country By Population
1 Nigeria 152 206,139,000
2 South  Africa 136 59,308,123
3 Ethiopia 134 114,963,129
4 Democratic Republic of Congo 60 89,561,456
5 Egypt 55 102,334,567
6 Sudan 52 43,849,234
7 Uganda 46 45,741,567
8 Algeria 39 43,851,786
9 Kenya 39 53,771,234
10 Tanzania 33 59,786,123

These countries simultaneously raised their rates of participation in higher education. Indeed, the countries that benefited most from integration with the world economy achieved the most marked increases in educational levels.

Besides, there is growing evidence that university education, through its role in empowering domestic constituencies, building institutions, and nurturing favourable regulatory frameworks and governance structures, is vital to a country’s efforts. This is to increase social capital and to promote social cohesion, which is proving to be an essential determinant of economic growth and development.

Benefits of Studying in an African University

Study and learn during a Different way
Often those studying in Africa will experience a completely new way of teaching. this will be daunting, but it’ll also open your mind to new ways of learning.

Opportunity to make unforgettable experiences
Study shows that folks are happier and feel more fulfilled once they spend on experience than once they buy new things. once you consider the items that bring you the foremost joy, they’re usually memorable experiences. you’ll get tons of that from studying in Africa

African Degrees are well respected It
If pursuing knowledgeable career is your goal, international education and knowledge on the CV will assist you stand out. it’ll also represent you as someone who is up for a challenge. Especially now that African universities are climbing the ranks in world university rankings

Opportunity to get unique ideas and opportunities
Most of the successful businesses in Africa and Asia were found out by people that gained international exposure and education. Econet, Celtel, IrokoTv, Jumia, and more. By studying in Africa, if you’re curious, you’ll find new ways to unravel a drag back home.

Opportunity to find out a replacement language
Studying during a country that speaks a special official language as yours is among the simplest ways to find out or brush up a replacement language. Imagine being close to communicate in German, French, or Mandarin. that would are available handy along your career path. Africa is diverse when it involves languages. All you’ve got to try to to is pick those that interest you the foremost .

Studying during a foreign country is different from tourism
Travel for a vacation is extremely different from settling during a foreign country for a yearlong study. you’ll get to experience your home of study for a more extended period and familiarize yourself with local knowledge like what tourist traps to avoid and the way to urge the foremost out of your new city.

Opportunity to experience the rich African culture
Yes, food. you only haven’t any idea about the variability of food that exists out there. you’ll never know until you venture out. you’ll even discover your new favourite.

Opportunity to require advantage of lower tuition fees
This, of course, depends on where you study in Africa. However, if you select a location in many parts of continental Europe, Asia, and Latin America , you’ll find it’s impossible to review at a highly reputed university without stepping into debt.

You will meet a various range of individuals
You will experience exposure to several differing types of individuals won’t only assist you to develop your people skills, but it’ll also offer you a firmer knowledge of others.

Enjoy international student discounts
Many famous Universities in Africa destinations offer student discounts for various activities, from transportation, bookstores to movie tickets and museums. you only need to spend wisely.

Opportunity to form lifelong friends
You will quickly develop the attitude that we are during this , along side other international students. this will end in lifelong friendships, even with the local students. you’ll not love every single person you meet, but the probabilities are that you’ll meet a minimum of one lifelong friend.

You will gain a more excellent knowledge of various cultures
As you observe and learn why people from different cultures do things the way they are doing , your emotional intelligence develops. you’ll learn to be less judgmental.

Opportunity to become spontaneous and adventurous
Being during a foreign environment ignites your adventurous nature. You tend to require to explore your new environment. Open your mind up to new experiences and sights and learn an excellent deal while having some fun.

Opportunity to explore together with your spare time
In between lectures and lab sessions, studying Africa should leave you with many time to explore. Whether you’re one for visiting iconic landmarks, trying new foods, or bartering at local markets, there’s sure to be a far better way of paying some time than scrolling through Facebook!

There is a robust involve strengthening universities and research within the new Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025. Its objectives include boosting postgraduate and post-doctoral education and growing competitive awards to nurture young academics, more international research cooperation, and expanding centres of excellence and institutional links.

Tertiary education and research are given more stress than in previous education statements, reflecting continental realization of their importance to growth and development.

The Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025, or CESA 16-25, is driven by a desire to realize quality education and training that gives the continent with “efficient human resources adapted to African core values and thus ready to achieve the vision and ambitions of the African Union.”

Strategic Objectives of African Universities
Revitalize the teaching profession to make sure quality and relevance in the least levels of education.
To build, rehabilitate, and support education infrastructure and develop policies that ensure a permanent stress-free and conducive learning environment for all to expand access to quality education in the least levels, including informal and non-formal settings.
Harness the capacity of ICT to enhance access, quality, and management of education and training systems.
Ensure acquisition of requisite knowledge and skills also as improved completion rates altogether groups through harmonization processes across all levels for national and regional integration.
Accelerate processes resulting in gender parity and equity.
Launch comprehensive and useful literacy programs across the continent.
Strengthen the science and arithmetic curricula in youth training and disseminate knowledge domain and culture in society.
Expand technical and vocational opportunities at both secondary and tertiary levels and strengthen linkages between the planet of labor and education and training systems.
Revitalize and expand tertiary education, research, and innovation to deal with continental challenges and promote global competitiveness.
Promote peace education and conflict prevention and determination in the least levels of education and for all age groups.
Improve management of education systems and build capacity for data collection, management, analysis, communication, and use.
Create a coalition of stakeholders to facilitate and support activities resulting from the implementation of CESA 16-25. Of importance to education is that the got to train well-qualified teachers and deliver continuous professional development.
Good university programs should integrate entrepreneurship and leadership training in their curriculum, in order that they produce graduates who have the soft-skills to play an impactful role in Africa’s economic transformation, and who begin not as job-seekers but as job creators. Eventually, aligning education to the stress of the market requires that we measure how successful universities fuse the lecture hall with the planet of labor .

Furthermore, the African countries with the foremost universities span across ten countries, from Uganda within the east to Nigeria within the west, Morocco within the north to South Africa at the southernmost tip of the continent.

In the University rankings, Two of South Africa’s universities feature within the top 200 of the worldwide rankings: the University of Cape Town is Africa’s top university, sitting at joint 136th position, while the University of Witwatersrand occupies the joint 194th spot.

Overall, Egypt and South Africa are the 2 best represented African countries within the ranking, with 20 and 10 universities each. Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa all have universities within the top 500 of the worldwide ranking. Finally, the ranking rates university performance using 13 different indicators; a number of which are measuring teaching, research, research impact, innovation, and international outlook.

In summary, variety is that the spice of life. Why not take that bold step towards gaining admission to review in Africa. YOUR SUCCESS MATTERS!

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How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services




How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

Today we are using generated company symbols to properly mark your social networks.
If you still do not have a logo and corporate identity, then our Logaster generator will always help to develop them quickly and efficiently.

Why should your business be represented on social networks?
Social networks are an integral part of the modern Internet, they have a huge audience and will become worthy platforms for promoting your brand. So, why does your company have to have pages on popular social networks?

Internet reputation management. Corporate social media accounts will help you post the most current, relevant and reliable information about the company, cover its activities from the best perspectives, which will positively affect your reputation;

Strengthen industry influence. Social networks are considered to be a powerful networking tool – creating useful links in the industry that interests you. Owing to this, you can quickly identify and collect useful information and connections for potential customers , associates, staff, investors;

Expanding audience reach. With the help of social networks, you will be able to significantly increase the number of points of contact with the target audience, a significant part of which may want to purchase your goods or services;

Improving customer loyalty. By regularly visiting your corporate accounts, you can work with customer reviews, complaints and suggestions. Prompt feedback will help you make your audience much more loyal and positive;

More effective search engine promotion. Conscientious maintenance of pages on social networks with frequent updating of unique content will significantly improve the position of your company’s website in search engine delivery (Google, Yandex);

Benefits for other marketing tools. Proper use of social media will bring an additional effect for solving other marketing tasks of your brand – from a corporate blog and electronic mailings to webinars or offline events.How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

We have therefore mentioned the principal reasons why you should build company accounts in common social networks.

More reasons can be found here.

What social networks should be made out?
The choice of the channel with which you can “reach out” to the target audience, and the competent design of the profile is an important and necessary marketing move.

The most popular among businesses in the CIS are sites such as Instagram, Facebook, VK, Odnoklassniki, YouTube. Here are some tips for choosing social networks for maintaining and promoting:

Which social networks should be emphasized largely depends on the subject of the project. For example, if your business is associated with any kind of creativity, then social networks such as YouTube (for creating video content), Instagram (photos of products, especially designer clothes, clothes, hand-made), SoundCloud (writing music) are best suited for its promotion.

If you have a typical company, VK and Facebook will provide the best response to the “basic” social networks. As for the Instagram service, it has proven itself for various areas of online business, including online stores (especially with goods for women), creative services, etc.

Closely monitor web analytics – it will help determine which services the largest number of visitors and purchases come to you from. By default, VK, Facebook, Odnoklassniki are considered the most useful among our entrepreneurs, followed by Twitter, Instagram and Youtube.

At the same time, we recommend not to “spray” on all available social networks, but to focus on those that lead major customers. It will be useful to study the pages of competitors, which can suggest some useful details. Of course, this advice is for those projects that already have a small traffic to the site.

You can also create corporate accounts in all specified social networks, arrange them, but only 2-3 of them are actively promoted and updated – the most effective for you. So you can save your time and at the same time not miss potential customers.

How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

A professional publishing and communication strategy for every channel is equally essential. For example, Facebook and VK are ideally suited for posting informational content (posts, articles, news), working with reviews, orders and customer requests, targeted advertising, etc.

In turn, Instagram ideally sells goods or services with photos, and on YouTube you can effectively post video reviews and presentations of your products, instructions.

Proper design of social networks – why is it so important?
It is not enough just to create company accounts in social networks, you also need to issue them in a high-quality manner. Proper branding plays a very important role, since any Internet user is now simply overloaded with information, especially in social networks. There is an opinion that an ordinary person sees hundreds of logos of various brands every day – both online and in reality.

Do not believe? Then just look back on the sides, go to your favourite sites and count the number of corporate symbols surrounding you.

Careful design of social networks will help to stand out against the background of numerous visual “spam”, and it will also provide your business with a number of advantages:

With it, you can attract the attention of users, help them better know your brand, highlight it against the background of symbols of other companies and competitors. The presence of a logo or other elements of corporate identity will allow the audience not to miss important news, promotions or other updates to your company;

You will be able to create a more holistic image of the company by branding social networks. Such sites are very important points of contact with customers, so the use of corporate identity will help you to remain consistent, while maintaining the integrity of your image in the eyes of the audience;

Branded content looks more attractive than regular photos, videos or text. With it, you can increase customer loyalty, gently advertise your brand, “accustom” them to your materials – as a result, they will respond positively to them by default.

As you can see, the competent design of social networks is of great importance for any enterprise, helping to establish a closer relationship with customers, which will positively affect the development of your business.

Social Media Branding Tips
So, you have developed a logo and corporate identity, created pages on social networks, defined their main goals (promotion of goods / services, work with reviews, etc.). Now is the time to proceed to the design of your accounts, following these tips:

Be consistent with the style of the pages, everywhere use the same fonts, color schemes, graphic elements, etc. Only in this way will you achieve that people will recognize your corporate colors even without a logo or company name;

The dimensions and other parameters of your logo should be adapted to the requirements of each individual social network. Do not use the logo of the same size for all sites, as it can be displayed there in cropped or stretched form. By the way, the Logaster service will help you immediately download various logo options of all necessary dimensions for popular social networks;

If the space on the avatar is limited, then it is better to use a simplified version of the logo, for example, without a text warehouse;

Pay special attention to the cover and photo (logo) of the account, because it is on them that the first look of each visitor is directed. It is important that they have the same style and color scheme with your corporate identity. You will be able to find a suitable caption for the theme of your business on photo stocks, or you can order it from a designer;

We recommend that you follow identical positioning and design when designing pages on different social networks. For example, if your logo on Facebook is in the lower right corner, then try to place it in about the same place and on other platforms (if possible);

You can also put any short text on the cover of your account – especially if it is really important / interesting information, for example, about a promotion, and you want users to see it first.

Having completed the design of the page, be sure to test it on all possible devices – PC, laptop, tablet, smartphone, etc. Make sure that all key elements look equally good at any screen resolution, not stretched or cropped. Any seeming trifle can significantly affect the reputation of your company and the loyalty of its audience.

Next, we will tell you how to upload your logo to the pages of popular social networks.

How to add an avatar (profile photo) on social networks
Below we consider the process of uploading a logo to Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Vkontakte,, LinkedIn, YouTube and Pinterest. Make sure you have the right size logo versions.

Image sizes for social networks (2020):
Image to external links: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 630 px
Cover: 820 x 312 px
Profile Photo: 170 x 170 px

In contact with
Image to external links: 537 x 240 px
Picture for post: 700 x 500 px
Profile photo: 200 x 500 px

Tweet picture: 1024 x 675 px
Cover: 1500 x 500 px
Profile photo: 400 x 400 px

Post picture: 1080 x 1080 px
Profile photo: 110 x 110 px

Image over video: 1280 x 720 px
Channel cover: 2560 x 1440 px
Profile photo: 800 x 800 px

Picture for pin: 1000 x 1500 px
Profile photo: 165 x 165 px

Image to external links:: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 1200 px
Cover: 1584 x 768 px
Profile photo: 300 x 300 px
Picture for post: 1680 x 1680 px
Cover: 1340 x 320 px
Profile Photo: 190 x 190 px

How to upload an image

First, make sure that you have a logo in PNG format of the right size – you can add it to your Facebook page.

How to add or change profile photo:

1. Log in to your Facebook account and go to your page.
2. Move the cursor over the place for the photo and click on the camera icon.
3. Select “Upload Photo”.
4. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. If necessary, the image can be cropped and arranged in accordance with the plan.
5. Click “Save.”

facebook min
How to add or change a cover:
1. Go to your page, hover over the cover image and click “Change Cover”.
2. Select Upload Photo.
3. Select the logo file and click Open. Position the image as you see fit.
4. Click Save.

Please note that although your profile photo is displayed on the user’s page as a square, in the news feed it takes the form of a circle. If you have a square logo, reduce its size so that the corners are not cut and it is not too crowded in a circle.


File size requirements are listed here.
Note: unlike Facebook, where business accounts are created on the basis of personal accounts, Twitter needs to have a separate page for the company or project.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Twitter account and open your page by clicking on your name.
2. Click the Edit profile button on the right side of the page and click on your photo. Click Select Photo.
3. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. Position the logo as you see fit.
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.

How to add or change the image in the header:
1. Go to your page and click the “Edit Profile” button.
2. Click on the header and select the Add header option.
3. Select a file and click “Open.”
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.

In contact with

File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a VK group and community:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
If you do not have an avatar yet, the text “Upload a photo” will be highlighted in its place;
(if the image is already available, then just point it and the pop-up menu will offer you to update the photo).
2. Click on it and upload the logo;
3. Make sure that when reducing the avatar to a round version, your logo does not cease to be recognizable. To do this, select the desired area by clicking on “Change thumbnail”.

How to add or change cover art in a VK group and community:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Go to community settings;
3, Click on “Download” opposite “Community Cover;
4. Download the logo;
Make sure that the logo is not ridiculously cropped.

File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a group in Odnoklassniki:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Hover over the profile picture and click on “Add Image” from the pop-up menu;
3. Download the logo.


File size requirements are listed here.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Instagram account from your phone. Open your profile by clicking on the corresponding icon.
2. Click on the profile photo and select “Upload Photo”. Select a file with a logo and press “Select”.
3. On the mobile device, click “Edit Profile” and select “Change Profile Photo”. After you select the file, click “Finish.”


File size requirements are listed here.

How to add a logo to your LinkedIn company page:
1. On your profile page, click on the photo thumbnail and select “Change” in the “Company Page” tab.
2. Click the “Edit” button and click on the “Edit Page” line.
3. Scroll to the “Company Logo” section. Click the “Edit” button and add / change the logo. You can also change the location of the logo by dragging it to the desired location.
4. Click “Save.”


File size requirements are listed here and here.

How to add or change a profile photo (channel icon):
1. Log into your YouTube account.
2. Click on the line My Channel, located under the profile photo in the upper right.
3. Hover over an existing photo and click on the edit icon.
4. Click “Edit” and select the logo file. Position it as you see fit.

How to add or change channel background image:
1. Going to My channel, hover over the background image and click on the edit (or add) icon.
2. Download the file and see how it is displayed on various devices. Position it as you see fit.
3. Click “Select.”


File size requirements are listed here.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Pinterest account.
2. Click on the ellipsis at the top, then click on the “Settings” button. Scroll down to the Profile section.
3. Click “Change Image,” then select the logo file. Ra

arrange it as you see fit.
4. Click “Save Settings.”

Useful services for designing social networks
We have prepared a small list of services that will be useful to you when designing social networks. Bookmark them so you don’t lose:

Logaster – creating and downloading logos optimized for the requirements of social networks.
Crello – create designs for social media covers.
Sproutsociale – optimization of the size of finished images to the requirements of social networks. – search for images for covers and overlay text on them.
Pixabay is a free photo stock for finding cover pictures.
Pexels is a bank of free photos for creating covers and posts on social networks.
Unsplash is another photo stock for social networks.
Jaymantri – abstract pictures for creating cover or post backgrounds.
Designspiration – search for inspiration. – a collection of free fonts. – collections of color schemes that will be useful in the design of posts and covers. – check page optimization for mobile devices.

Representative offices in social networks significantly stimulate the development of the company, making it possible to increase its recognition and increase the number of points of contact with customers. Following these tips, you will create really powerful marketing tools that will help you attract many potential customers from popular social media.

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