Summary of Half of Yellow Son by Adichie Chimamanda
The novel takes place in Nigeria prior to and during the Nigerian Civil War (1967–70). The effect of the war is shown through the dynamic relationships of five people’s lives including twin daughters of an influential businessman, a professor, a British citizen, and a houseboy. After Biafra’s declaration of secession, the lives of the main characters drastically changed and were torn apart by the brutality of the civil war and decisions in their personal lives.
The book jumps between events that took place during the early and late 1960s, when the war took place, and extends until the end of the war. In the early 1960s, the main characters are introduced: Ugwu, a 13-year-old village boy who moves in with Odenigbo, to work as his houseboy. Odenigbo frequently entertains intellectuals to discuss the political turmoil in Nigeria. Life changes for Ugwu when Odenigbo’s girlfriend, Olanna, moves in with them. Ugwu forms a strong bond with both of them, and is very loyal. Olanna has a twin sister, Kainene, a woman with a dry sense of humor, tired by the pompous company she runs for her father. Her lover Richard is an Englishman who has come to Nigeria to explore Igbo-Ukwu art.
Jumping four years ahead, trouble is brewing between the Hausa and the Igbo people and hundreds of people die in massacres, including Olanna’s beloved auntie and uncle. A new republic, called Biafra, is created by the Igbo. As a result of the conflict, Olanna, Odenigbo, their infant daughter, whom they refer to only as “Baby”, and Ugwu are forced to flee Nsukka, which is the university town and the major intellectual hub of the new nation. They finally end up in the refugee town of Umuahia, where they suffer as a result of food shortages and the constant air raids and paranoid atmosphere. There are also allusions to a conflict between Olanna and Kainene, Richard and Kainene and Olanna and Odenigbo.
When the novel jumps back to the early 1960s, we learn that Odenigbo slept with a village girl, who then had his baby. Olanna is furious at his betrayal, and sleeps with Richard in a moment of liberation. She goes back to Odenigbo and when they later learn that Amala refused to keep her newborn daughter, Olanna decides that they would keep her.
Back during the war Olanna, Odenigbo, Baby, and Ugwu were living with Kainene and Richard where Kainene was running a refugee camp. The situation is hopeless as they have no food or medicine. Kainene decides to trade across enemy lines, but does not return, even after the end of the war a few weeks later. The book ends ambiguously, with the reader not knowing if Kainene live
Roles and Anlysis of Characters in Half of Yellow son Adichie Chimamanda
Major and Minor Character in Half of Yellow son
Roles and Character Analysis of Ugwu in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
The novel starts and ends with Ugwu. He is a village boy from Opi who later becomes a servant in Odenigbo’s house. Under Odenigbo and Olanna’s guidance, Ugwu is able to continue his education and his literary skills progress throughout the novel. He tries to maintain contact with his mother and sister, Anulika, back in his home village, and is constantly looking out for his mother’s health and wellbeing. His free time is often dominated by his love interests, which include Nnesinachi, Eberechi, and Chinyere. His life is violently interrupted when he is forcibly conscripted into the Biafrain Army. There, he witnesses and participates in gruesome battles and a rape.
Roles and Character Analysis of Odenigbo in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Odenigbo – Odenigbo starts the novel as Professor of Mathematics at Nsukka University. His strong opinions result in some characters labeling him as a “revolutionary.” He favors socialism and tribalism to capitalism and Pan-Africanism or nationalism. After the war forces him to vacate his position at Nsukka University, Odenigbo becomes active in the war cause under Manpower Directorate . His personal life is dominated by his relationship and later marriage to Olanna. He is the father of Baby, though Amala, not Olanna, is Baby’s mother. Odenigbo also has a strong, albeit turbulent, relationship with his mother. “Mama” affects his relationship with Olanna, and Mama’s death starts Odenigbo on a dark path of alcoholism and depression.
Roles and Character Analysis of Olanna in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Olanna – Olanna is one of three characters through which the novel is told (the others being Ugwu and Richard). She is the daughter of Chief Ozobia and twin of Kainene. Olanna was raised in Nigeria, and later attended university in the United Kingdom. She is described as “illogically beautiful,” and her appearance often dictates how others treat her. For example, her parents try to offer sex with her as a bribe to help secure business deals. Consequently, her connection with her parents is weak and she gravitates towards her Aunt Ifeka and Uncle Mbaezi in Kano. Mohammed is her ex-boyfriend and Odenigbo is her husband, and she is the adopted mother of Baby. Professionally, she is a Professor of Sociology at Nsukka University before the war begins. She later works as a school teacher in Umuahia and finally helps her sister care for refugees in Orlu.
Roles and Character Analysis of Kainene in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Kainene – Kainene, Olanna’s twin, seems to be at first very different from Olanna. She is the type of strong-headed woman, independent, cold, very calculated. Kainene lives in Port Harcourt where she runs her father’s business. Her father, very proud of her, tells one of his friends that she is “not just like a son, she is like two.” In the beginning of the war, she is a war profiteer. However, after she witnesses the war’s cruelty, she changes completely as a character and instead of running her father’s business, she runs a refugee camp. She remains fearless and in the end decides to trade with the enemy, putting her life at risk.
Roles and Character Analysis of Richard Churchill in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Richard Churchill – Richard is an English writer who comes to Nigeria to explore Igbo-Ukwu art. At first he associates with other expats, especially Susan who becomes his girlfriend. However, once he meets Kainene at one of the parties Susan drags him to, he becomes fascinated with her. Richard moves to Nsukka where he teaches at the Nsukka University and attempts to write a book about the Igbo-Ukwu art. Olanna invites him to be part of Odenigbo’s circle of intellectuals. Richard is glad to witness Biafra’s birth, thinking it would actually make him Biafran. He starts writing a book about the war, but soon realizes that it is not his story to tell. Adichie has said in an interview that the idea of Richard came from Frederick Forsyth, a staunch supporter of Biafra: “Richard isn’t at all like him, of course, but just the sense of an Englishman who became more Biafran than Biafrans themselves, was really an idea that came from him, Forsyth.”
Roles and Character Analysis of Ugwu’s aunty in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Ugwu’s aunty – Cleaner at Nsukka University, she introduces Ugwu to Master Odenigbo.
Roles and Character Analysis of Anulika in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Anulika – Anulika is Ugwu’s sister. She is preparing to get married before the war, but a war-time tragedy changes her plans.
Roles and Character Analysis of Nnesinachi in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Nnesinachi – Ugwu’s first crush from his village of Opi. Ugwu and Nnesinachi reconnect after the war.
Roles and Character Analysis of Ugwu’s mother in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Ugwu’s mother – Ugwu’s mother suffers from illness in Ugwu’s home village of Opi. She seeks treatment in Nsukka with Odenigbo’s help. Ugwu often worries about her during the war.
Roles and Character Analysis of Miss Adebayo in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Miss Adebayo –Yoruba professor at Nsukka University. Sexual tension between Miss Adebayo and Odenigbo create an awkward relationship between Miss Adebayo and Olanna. As the war starts to break out, Miss Adebayo’s ethnicity creates a gap between her and other professors.
Roles and Character Analysis of Dr Patel in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Dr Patel – Indian Professor at Nsukka University. Dr. Patel is a friend of Odenigbo and Olanna.
Roles and Character Analysis of Professor Lehman in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Professor Lehman – American Professor at Nsukka University. Professor Lehman’s views are often criticized by Odenigbo.
Roles and Character Analysis of Professor Ezeka in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Professor Ezeka – Professor at Nsukka University who later becomes Director of Mobilization in the Biafran Army.
Roles and Character Analysis of Okeoma in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Okeoma – A friend of Olanna and Odenigbo in Nsukka. Okeoma is a renowned poet, as one point called, “the voice of our generation.” He cites Olanna as his inspiration. Okeoma later becomes an officer in the Biafran Army and stops writing poems.
Roles and Character Analysis of Edna in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Edna – Olanna’s neighbor in Nsukka. Edna is an African American woman with strong opinions on racial and gender injustice.
Roles and Character Analysis of Jomo in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Jomo – Jomo works as the gardener at both Richard’s house and Odenigbo’s house in Nsukka. He is one of Ugwu’s first friends in Nsukka and is also often feuding with his rival, Harrison.
Roles and Character Analysis of Harrison in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Harrison – Richard’s houseboy. Harrison’s talkative nature at first annoys Richard, and later gets him into trouble.
Roles and Character Analysis of Chinyere in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Chinyere – Works in a house near Master’s in Nsukka. Maintains late night visits with Ugwu until the war starts.
Roles and Character Analysis of Mama (Odenigbo’s mother) in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Mama (Odenigbo’s mother) – A village woman from Abba. She is opposed to the relationship between Odenigbo and Olanna because they are not officially married (no bride price paid yet) plus Olanna is an unnatural woman.
Roles and Character Analysis of Amala in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Amala – A village girl who works for Mama, Odenigbo’s mother. To break up Olanna and Odenigbo Mama makes Amala sleep with Odenigbo. Amala gets pregnant but after giving birth, she refuses to take the child and sends her back to Mama.
Roles and Character Analysis of Chief Okonji in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Chief Okonji – Friend of Olanna and Kainene’s parents. Chief Okonji claims a romantic interest in Olanna, but is thoroughly rebuffed by Olanna.
Roles and Character Analysis of Chief Ozobia in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Chief Ozobia – Prominent businessman in Lagos and father to Olanna and Kainene. Chief Ozobia manipulates his daughters for financial benefit. He also keeps a mistress, and eventually leaves Nigerian during the war.
Roles and Character Analysis of Olanna and Kainene’s mother
in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Olanna and Kainene’s mother – Chief Ozobia’s wife and mother of Olanna and Kainene. She does not have a strong relationship with her daughters, and her marriage with Chief Ozobi might be described as a pretense.
Roles and Character Analysis of Uncle Mbaezi in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Uncle Mbaezi – Olanna’s uncle, he is the brother of Olanna’s mother. He lives with his family in Kano where he founded the Igbo Union Grammar School.
Roles and Character Analysis of Aunty Ifeka in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Aunty Ifeka – Uncle Mbaezi’s wife. Aunty Ifeka gives guidance to Olanna, who isn’t very close to her own mother.
Roles and Character Analysis of Arize in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Arize – Olanna’s cousin, she is Uncle Mbaezi and Aunty Ifeka’s daughter. Arize is eager find a husband and get married. Like her parents, she looks up to Olanna.
Roles and Character Analysis of Mohammed in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Mohammed – Olanna’s ex-boyfriend. He is a handsome Hausa man. Even after she leaves him for Odenigbo, they remain on good terms and she frequently visits him until the war starts. During the war, writes her letters but they feel very distance.
Roles and Character Analysis of Baby in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Baby – Olanna and Odenigbo’s daughter. Amala is Baby’s birth mother, but refuses to keep her. When Olanna sees her, she decides to adopt her. Baby’s real name is Chiamaka, which means “God is beautiful.” Kainene picked it but it is rarely used.
Roles and Character Analysis of Susan in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Susan – Initially Richard’s girlfriend. She lives in Nigeria but mainly associates with other expatriates or upper class Nigerians. Her racism towards Nigerians as well as her possessiveness towards Richard emerge periodically throughout the novel.
Roles and Character Analysis of Major Madu in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Major Madu – Lifelong friend of Kainene. Major Madu serves in first the Nigerian and later Biafran army. He and Richard’s relationship is strained due to the uncertainty of Madu’s role in Kainene’s life.
Roles and Character Analysis of Special Julius in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Special Julius – Army contractor. He becomes a frequent visitor of Odenigbo when they are in Umuahia.
Roles and Character Analysis of Ekwenugo in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Ekwenugo – Member of the Science group in the Biafran army. Ekwenugo meets Olanna and Odenigbo in Umuahia.
Roles and Character Analysis of Mrs Muokelu in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Mrs Muokelu – Co-teacher with Olanna at Umuahia. Olanna finds Mrs. Muokelu as manly and slightly judgmental. Mrs. Muokelu eventually stops teaching and starts trading across enemy lines.
Roles and Character Analysis of Mrs Muokelu in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Okoromadu – An old acquaintance of Olanna’s, Okoromadu helps her get emergency supplies for baby in Umuahia.
Roles and Character Analysis of Eberechi in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Eberechi – Ugwu’s love interest in Umuahia. Eberechi is exploited for her parents’ benefit.
Roles and Character Analysis of Alice in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Alice – Odenigbo and Olanna’s neigbhbor at their second place of residence in Umuahia. Alice is seeks refuge in Umahia after being tricked by an Army Colornel. She is known as a recluse and avid pianist. Mystery shrouds her relationship with Odenigbo.
Roles and Character Analysis of Father Marcel in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
Father Marcel – Helps coordinate refugee relief with Kainene in Orlu. Father Marcel is later accused of impropriety by some of the refugees.
Roles and Character Analysis of High-Tech in Half of Yellow son by Adichie Chimamanda
High-Tech – A young soldier and leader of Ugwu’s reconnaissance unit. High tech’s name refers to his commanders claiming he is more useful than a “high technology spying gadget.”
Themes of Half of a Yellow Sun
The Theme of Colonialism and Nigerian Politics
The Theme of War and Violence
The Theme of Race and Culture
The Theme of Love
Theme Analysis of Half of a Yellow Sun
Colonialism and Nigerian Politics
Half of a Yellow Sun mostly deals with the Nigerian Civil War (also called the Biafran War), which took place between 1967 and 1970. Nigeria had only recently freed itself from British colonial rule at the time, and the country of Nigeria was itself an arbitrary unification (by its colonizers) of over 300 different ethnic groups. The largest of these were the Igbo in the Southeast, the Yoruba in the Southwest, and the Hausa in the North. Adichie paints a picture of this hopeful young country in its new independence through scenes at Odenigbo’s house, where politicians, professors, and poets argue and laugh together. But despite Independence in 1960, Nigerian politics were still under British influence (which wanted to maintain its access to Nigerian resources), mostly through the way the government was arranged – so that the autocratic Northern Hausa had the most control. Ultimately the tensions between the ethnic groups (exacerbated and sometimes even created by England) led to the massacres of Igbo people in 1966 and the Civil War that followed, with the secession of the Republic of Biafra in the Southeast.
Half of a Yellow Sun is told from the point of view of mostly Igbo characters – Ugwu, Odenigbo, Olanna, and Kainene – who are all affected by the massacres and the war, and hold a desperate hope in the future of Biafra. Adichie also gives us the viewpoint of an outsider, the white Englishman Richard, who though he belongs to the colonizers comes to identify closely with the Biafran cause through his love of Kainene (and yet, at the same time, can never actually be Biafran or completely extricate himself from the colonialist context or to separate his own objectification of Biafrans from his love of Kailene. Ultimately none of the political sides come out blameless in the conflict, just like the characters in the novel. England started all the trouble by colonizing and oppressing Nigeria, stirring up ethnic tensions, and supplying arms to Nigeria during the war; Nigeria used starvation and genocide as weapons of war, and the Biafran soldiers committed their own atrocities against the Nigerians and even their own people. The power of the novel is then to show human faces of different aspects of this conflict, and to portray individual tragedies and victories that bring to life events most Westerners aren’t even aware of.
War and Violence Theme Analysis
Most of the novel centers around the Nigerian Civil War, and the excessive cruelty and violence of this conflict affects all of the characters. This war was sparked by the massacres of Igbo people in 1966, when angry mobs killed soldiers and citizens as “retribution” for a government coup. The creation of Biafra was then a time of hope for the battered Igbo, but this was quickly tempered by the declaration of war from Nigeria. In Half of a Yellow Sun, Adichie contrasts scenes of peace and optimism (like the dinner parties at Odenigbo’s house) with sudden scenes of violence and fear. In this way she creates a tone of constant suspense, as the country becomes a place of danger and casual violence.
Anywhere from one to three million people died of starvation and fighting during the Biafran War, and Adichie draws out the personal tragedies in these astronomical numbers. She shows small horrors like a woman carrying her daughter’s severed head in a basket, the girl’s hair still carefully braided, or Ikejide having his head cut off by a piece of shrapnel. There are other tragedies as well, like the poet Okeoma giving up writing in order to fight, or Ugwu contributing to the horrors of war by participating in the rape of a bar girl. War and violence is often overwhelming in both the world and in the novel, and sometimes the only redemption seems to be trying to avoid history’s mistakes by fully confronting them, as we do in Adichie’s merciless writing.
Race and Culture Theme Analysis
Much of the conflict in Nigerian politics and between the characters of the novel has to do with race and culture. The root cause of this is the racist, oppressive colonization of Nigeria by the British Empire. This is illustrated in characters like Susan, who sees all Africans as less-civilized and inferior to white people. Colonialism also exacerbated cultural conflicts among the Nigerians themselves, as the country’s borders are a “unified” region created by England, forcing together over 300 different cultural groups. The main tension is between the Muslim, autocratic Hausa and the mostly-Christian, republican Igbo. The British colonizers gave most of the government control to the Hausa, as they were easier for the British to influence from afar, but the Igbo and the Yoruba developed the strongest middle class.
Adichie’s characters then represent many of these different cultures and races. Olanna and Kainene are upper-class Igbo, Odenigbo is a middle-class, intellectual Igbo, Ugwu is an extremely poor Igbo from a bush village, and Richard is a white English expatriate. Adichie is from an Igbo family herself, so she clearly identifies more with the Biafran cause, but she doesn’t shy away from portraying the mistakes and atrocities committed by Biafra. Overall her portrayal of the conflicts between race and culture shows the common humanity of all, and how even someone like Richard – a member of the oppressive culture – can be a force for good when he is willing to recognize the equal value of all people and try to help them.
Love Theme Analysis
Half of a Yellow Sun deals with political and historical events but it is also deeply personal, particularly in the love between its characters. The romantic relationships between Olanna and Odenigbo, Kainene and Richard, and Ugwu’s infatuation with Eberechi are at the center of the novel, as well as the sibling love between Olanna and Kainene. As with everything in the book, the personal is affected by the political and vice versa: Olanna’s love for Odenigbo brings her into his world of radical politics, and Richard’s love for Kainene causes him to cross racial and political boundaries.
The love between the sisters becomes a sort of symbol for the unity of Nigeria, as they painfully cut off ties but are eventually reunited. Ugwu’s longings for Nnesinachi and Eberechi are thwarted by the war, and then as a soldier he commits the atrocity of rape – the ultimate corruption of love. The love between Kainene and Richard and the love between the sisters seems the most enduring of the book, which makes it all the more tragic when Kainene disappears. Ultimately Adichie delves into all the deep aspects of the human experience: sex as well as violence, romance as well as cruelty, and though she shows great injustice and pain she also portrays love that can withstand such suffering.
The use of Synbols in Half of a Yellow Sun
The Symbolism of the Half of a Yellow Sun
Pg. 352 “She taught them about the Biafran flag. They sat on wooden planks and the weak morning sun streamed into the roofless class as she unfurled Odenigbo’s cloth flag and told them what the symbols meant. Red was the blood of the siblings massacred in the North, black was for mourning them, green was for the prosperity Biafra would have, and, finally, the half of the yellow sun stood for the glorious future.”
The title of the novel Half of a Yellow
The title of the novel Half of a Yellow Sun symbolizes, as shown in this passage, the glorious future. A glorious future is very hard to vision during a time of war, death and great violence such as the war that is raging on during this section of the novel. However, in order to keep people’s morale’s high they must have instilled in them some sort of hope and promise for a future that is better than what they had before, and definitely better than what they are enduring now. The best way to instill a sense of hope for a more glorious future is to instill a sense of pride and education in the future’s leaders- the children. Even the enemy knows the importance that educating children can play in improving the morale of the people- as they bombed the school where the education occurs. Bombing the school in some ways can be equivalent to bombing people’s hope for the brighter future that is promised.
Pg. 349-350 “She chuckled and shook her head and tugged at the half of a yellow sun around her neck. (also mentioned on pg. 333)
The fact that Mrs. Muokelu wears the symbol of the hope that the Biafran army tries to instill upon the civilians displays the hope that she carries for a brighter future ahead of them. She is an elementary school teacher, which is an essential factor for educating the next generation. She also seems to help keep Olanna’s, as well as other people’s, spirit’s lifted. On pg. 332, she speaks about her visions, which shows positives outcomes. This can help lift people’s spirits. On pg. 335 she helps ease Olanna’s worry about Baby not eating enough by providing her with dried egg yolk. On pg. 342 she tries to help Olanna learn soap making, a skill which could help her earn some money. She also looks out for children- pg. 339 “it was Mrs. Muokelu who went over and took the baby from Okromadu and placed it back in the mother’s arms. ‘Take your child,’ she said. ‘It is not his fault that there is no food today.”
Mrs. Muokelu seems to be the figure of hope for the glorious future. However on pg. 343 Olanna and Odenigbo make fun of Mrs. Muokelu.
What does making fun of Mrs. Muokelu show about Olanna’s and Odenigbo’s view of hope for a brighter future?
Olanna seems to go along with the idea of educating children on the values of the Biafran army. Even after the school was blown up, she continues teaching the children. On pg. 353 Olanna is worried when one of her student’s tells her that she wants to kill the vandals. “The first thing she told Odenigbo when he got home was how banal the word kill had sounded from the child’s mouth and how guilty she had felt.”
Does this quote suggest that Olanna actually does not feel that educating the children is the best way to go about spreading hope and high morale? Why does Olanna continue to teach if she feels that way?
Right after this Odenigbo tells her “She doesn’t actually kill anybody. You just taught her patriotism.” Olanna answers “I don’t know.’ But his words emboldened her, as did the pride in his face. He liked that she has spoken so forcefully, for once, about the cause; it was if she had finally become an equal partner in the war effort.”
What does Olanna’s response suggest? Does she do what she is doing for the hope of a glorious future, or because it is what Odenigbo wants?
Ugwu is a young houseboy who, because of the situation he lived in, he was able to live a fairly decent and become well educated. In fact, when Mrs. Muokelu and Olanna were teaching the children after the school was bombed, he was able to teach a class as well, even though he is barely a child himself. On pg. 447 he is captured and forced to join the Biafran army.
Pg. 450: “The skinny soldiers- with no boots, no half of a yellow sun on their sleeves.”
What does the fact that the soldiers do not have the symbol of hope for a glorious future mean?
It could be said that these children were stripped of the glorious future that is promised in order to fight to their deaths for the cause that attempts to instill that sense of hope in the first place.
Is Ugwu fighting in the army willingly, or is he just trying to survive?
The Biafran Flag Symbol Analysis
The Biafran Flag Symbol Icon
The title of the novel comes from the image of the Biafran flag, which is composed of half of a yellow sun over stripes of red, black and green. In the novel Olanna teaches her students about the flag – the red symbolizes the blood of the Igbo slain in the 1966 pogrom, the black is to mourn their deaths, the green is for Biafra’s future prosperity, and the yellow sun is for the country’s “glorious future.” Adichie often points out the yellow sun on the uniforms of Biafran soldiers, and sometimes contrasts this image of hope with scenes of violence or tragedy. The flag ultimately comes to represent the optimism of the Biafrans when they first seceded from Nigeria, and then the horrors of starvation and war that came to crush that hopefulness.
Odenigbo climbed up to the podium waving his Biafran flag: swaths of red, black, and green and, at the center, a luminous half of a yellow sun.
“Biafra is born! We will lead Black Africa! We will live in security! Nobody will ever again attack us! Never again!”
I’m attracted to you, but not physically – Erica to Laycon (Video)
BBNaija housemate, Erica has opened up to Laycon that she is not in any way attracted to him physically, but mentally.
She made this known to the rapper during a discussion yesterday after he approached her to reiterate his interest in her.
Recall that Laycon had told Erica on Tuesday that he had feelings for her and cares about being in a relationship with her.
However, hours later, Erica and Kiddwaya had a steamy session in bed.
Seeking clarifications on Tuesday night, Laycon approached Erica to reveal her feelings for him.
During the conversation, Erica told Laycon that she is only mentally attracted to him but physically attracted to Kiddwaya.
“I’M MENTALLY ATTRACTED TO YOU BUT ATTRACTED TO KIDDWAYA PHYSICALLY. I’VE DECIDED NOT TO OVERTHINK ANYTHING WITH KIDDWAYA ,I JUST WANT TO BE HAPPY. LET’S JUST GO BACK TO HOW WE WERE BUT I HATE MAKING OTHERS FEEL BAD.”
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10 African Countries With the Most Number of Universities
Brief History of African Universities
It is being observed that those individuals who are intellectuals, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbour them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce. While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus.
One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.
Among those works that focused on higher education under British influence, in which Eric Ashby is often referred to as a classic.
More recent works include that of Okunor, which focused on West African countries under strong British and American influence such as Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. A significant additional work on higher education is the Eastern and Southern African Universities Research Programme that was conducted in 1984. Such studies commonly view the colonial era as the beginning of modern higher education in Africa and do not refer to the higher education institutions that existed before colonialism.
It is well known that people who are scholars, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbor them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce.
While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus. One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.
African Universities Ranking Among Others
There are many different rankings and league tables, and several African universities consistently per population. The University Rankings focuses on four broad areas that they feel are of particular interest to prospective students: research, teaching, employability, and international outlook.
These four key areas are assessed using six indicators, with each given a different percentage weighting. A strong emphasis is placed on
- Academic reputation
- Faculty/student ratio
- Citations per faculty
- Employer reputation
- International student ratio
- International staff ratio
The World University Rankings places a strong emphasis on reputation. The ‘academic reputation’ is assessed through a global survey completed by academics, and the ’employer reputation’ is assessed through a survey of employers worldwide. While the rankings also score research citations, smaller and specialist institutions can be included in this ranking if they have a strong global reputation.
Notably, South Africa has four universities ranked among the top 200 in Africa;however, here are a few African universities that made it under the top 1000 in the world.
|S/N||University||Country||African Ranking||World Ranking|
|1||University of Cape Town||South Africa||1||136th|
|2||University of the Witwatersrand||South Africa||2||194th|
|3||Stellenbosch University||South Africa||3||259th|
|6||University of Kwazulu-Natal||South Africa||6||472th|
|8||University of Ibadan||Nigeria||8||524th|
|10||Suez Canal University||Egypt||10||586th|
Top 10 African Countries with the Most Universities
University education is more than the next level in the learning process; it is a critical component of human development worldwide. It provides not only the high-level skills necessary for every labour market but also the training essential for teachers, doctors, nurses, civil servants, engineers, humanists, entrepreneurs, scientists, social scientists, and a myriad of other personnel. It is these trained individuals who develop the capacity and analytical skills that drive local economies, support civil society, teach children, lead capable governments, and make critical decisions that affect entire societies.
An educated populace is vital in today’s world, with the convergent impacts of globalization, the increasing importance of knowledge as a primary driver of growth, and the information and communication revolution. Knowledge accumulation and application have become significant factors in economic development and are increasingly at the core of a country’s competitive advantage in the global economy.
The combination of increased computing power, diminishing prices of hardware and software, improvement of wireless and satellite technologies, and reduced telecommunication costs have all but removed the space and time barriers to information access and exchange.
|S/N||Country||Number Of Universities||Country By Population|
|4||Democratic Republic of Congo||60||89,561,456|
These countries simultaneously raised their rates of participation in higher education. Indeed, the countries that benefited most from integration with the world economy achieved the most marked increases in educational levels.
Besides, there is growing evidence that university education, through its role in empowering domestic constituencies, building institutions, and nurturing favourable regulatory frameworks and governance structures, is vital to a country’s efforts. This is to increase social capital and to promote social cohesion, which is proving to be an essential determinant of economic growth and development.
Benefits of Studying in an African University
Study and learn during a Different way
Often those studying in Africa will experience a completely new way of teaching. this will be daunting, but it’ll also open your mind to new ways of learning.
Opportunity to make unforgettable experiences
Study shows that folks are happier and feel more fulfilled once they spend on experience than once they buy new things. once you consider the items that bring you the foremost joy, they’re usually memorable experiences. you’ll get tons of that from studying in Africa
African Degrees are well respected It
If pursuing knowledgeable career is your goal, international education and knowledge on the CV will assist you stand out. it’ll also represent you as someone who is up for a challenge. Especially now that African universities are climbing the ranks in world university rankings
Opportunity to get unique ideas and opportunities
Most of the successful businesses in Africa and Asia were found out by people that gained international exposure and education. Econet, Celtel, IrokoTv, Jumia, and more. By studying in Africa, if you’re curious, you’ll find new ways to unravel a drag back home.
Opportunity to find out a replacement language
Studying during a country that speaks a special official language as yours is among the simplest ways to find out or brush up a replacement language. Imagine being close to communicate in German, French, or Mandarin. that would are available handy along your career path. Africa is diverse when it involves languages. All you’ve got to try to to is pick those that interest you the foremost .
Studying during a foreign country is different from tourism
Travel for a vacation is extremely different from settling during a foreign country for a yearlong study. you’ll get to experience your home of study for a more extended period and familiarize yourself with local knowledge like what tourist traps to avoid and the way to urge the foremost out of your new city.
Opportunity to experience the rich African culture
Yes, food. you only haven’t any idea about the variability of food that exists out there. you’ll never know until you venture out. you’ll even discover your new favourite.
Opportunity to require advantage of lower tuition fees
This, of course, depends on where you study in Africa. However, if you select a location in many parts of continental Europe, Asia, and Latin America , you’ll find it’s impossible to review at a highly reputed university without stepping into debt.
You will meet a various range of individuals
You will experience exposure to several differing types of individuals won’t only assist you to develop your people skills, but it’ll also offer you a firmer knowledge of others.
Enjoy international student discounts
Many famous Universities in Africa destinations offer student discounts for various activities, from transportation, bookstores to movie tickets and museums. you only need to spend wisely.
Opportunity to form lifelong friends
You will quickly develop the attitude that we are during this , along side other international students. this will end in lifelong friendships, even with the local students. you’ll not love every single person you meet, but the probabilities are that you’ll meet a minimum of one lifelong friend.
You will gain a more excellent knowledge of various cultures
As you observe and learn why people from different cultures do things the way they are doing , your emotional intelligence develops. you’ll learn to be less judgmental.
Opportunity to become spontaneous and adventurous
Being during a foreign environment ignites your adventurous nature. You tend to require to explore your new environment. Open your mind up to new experiences and sights and learn an excellent deal while having some fun.
Opportunity to explore together with your spare time
In between lectures and lab sessions, studying Africa should leave you with many time to explore. Whether you’re one for visiting iconic landmarks, trying new foods, or bartering at local markets, there’s sure to be a far better way of paying some time than scrolling through Facebook!
There is a robust involve strengthening universities and research within the new Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025. Its objectives include boosting postgraduate and post-doctoral education and growing competitive awards to nurture young academics, more international research cooperation, and expanding centres of excellence and institutional links.
Tertiary education and research are given more stress than in previous education statements, reflecting continental realization of their importance to growth and development.
The Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025, or CESA 16-25, is driven by a desire to realize quality education and training that gives the continent with “efficient human resources adapted to African core values and thus ready to achieve the vision and ambitions of the African Union.”
Strategic Objectives of African Universities
Revitalize the teaching profession to make sure quality and relevance in the least levels of education.
To build, rehabilitate, and support education infrastructure and develop policies that ensure a permanent stress-free and conducive learning environment for all to expand access to quality education in the least levels, including informal and non-formal settings.
Harness the capacity of ICT to enhance access, quality, and management of education and training systems.
Ensure acquisition of requisite knowledge and skills also as improved completion rates altogether groups through harmonization processes across all levels for national and regional integration.
Accelerate processes resulting in gender parity and equity.
Launch comprehensive and useful literacy programs across the continent.
Strengthen the science and arithmetic curricula in youth training and disseminate knowledge domain and culture in society.
Expand technical and vocational opportunities at both secondary and tertiary levels and strengthen linkages between the planet of labor and education and training systems.
Revitalize and expand tertiary education, research, and innovation to deal with continental challenges and promote global competitiveness.
Promote peace education and conflict prevention and determination in the least levels of education and for all age groups.
Improve management of education systems and build capacity for data collection, management, analysis, communication, and use.
Create a coalition of stakeholders to facilitate and support activities resulting from the implementation of CESA 16-25. Of importance to education is that the got to train well-qualified teachers and deliver continuous professional development.
Good university programs should integrate entrepreneurship and leadership training in their curriculum, in order that they produce graduates who have the soft-skills to play an impactful role in Africa’s economic transformation, and who begin not as job-seekers but as job creators. Eventually, aligning education to the stress of the market requires that we measure how successful universities fuse the lecture hall with the planet of labor .
Furthermore, the African countries with the foremost universities span across ten countries, from Uganda within the east to Nigeria within the west, Morocco within the north to South Africa at the southernmost tip of the continent.
In the University rankings, Two of South Africa’s universities feature within the top 200 of the worldwide rankings: the University of Cape Town is Africa’s top university, sitting at joint 136th position, while the University of Witwatersrand occupies the joint 194th spot.
Overall, Egypt and South Africa are the 2 best represented African countries within the ranking, with 20 and 10 universities each. Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa all have universities within the top 500 of the worldwide ranking. Finally, the ranking rates university performance using 13 different indicators; a number of which are measuring teaching, research, research impact, innovation, and international outlook.
In summary, variety is that the spice of life. Why not take that bold step towards gaining admission to review in Africa. YOUR SUCCESS MATTERS!
How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services
Today we are using generated company symbols to properly mark your social networks.
If you still do not have a logo and corporate identity, then our Logaster generator will always help to develop them quickly and efficiently.
Why should your business be represented on social networks?
Social networks are an integral part of the modern Internet, they have a huge audience and will become worthy platforms for promoting your brand. So, why does your company have to have pages on popular social networks?
Internet reputation management. Corporate social media accounts will help you post the most current, relevant and reliable information about the company, cover its activities from the best perspectives, which will positively affect your reputation;
Strengthen industry influence. Social networks are considered to be a powerful networking tool – creating useful links in the industry that interests you. Owing to this, you can quickly identify and collect useful information and connections for potential customers , associates, staff, investors;
Expanding audience reach. With the help of social networks, you will be able to significantly increase the number of points of contact with the target audience, a significant part of which may want to purchase your goods or services;
Improving customer loyalty. By regularly visiting your corporate accounts, you can work with customer reviews, complaints and suggestions. Prompt feedback will help you make your audience much more loyal and positive;
More effective search engine promotion. Conscientious maintenance of pages on social networks with frequent updating of unique content will significantly improve the position of your company’s website in search engine delivery (Google, Yandex);
Benefits for other marketing tools. Proper use of social media will bring an additional effect for solving other marketing tasks of your brand – from a corporate blog and electronic mailings to webinars or offline events.
More reasons can be found here.
What social networks should be made out?
The choice of the channel with which you can “reach out” to the target audience, and the competent design of the profile is an important and necessary marketing move.
The most popular among businesses in the CIS are sites such as Instagram, Facebook, VK, Odnoklassniki, YouTube. Here are some tips for choosing social networks for maintaining and promoting:
Which social networks should be emphasized largely depends on the subject of the project. For example, if your business is associated with any kind of creativity, then social networks such as YouTube (for creating video content), Instagram (photos of products, especially designer clothes, clothes, hand-made), SoundCloud (writing music) are best suited for its promotion.
If you have a typical company, VK and Facebook will provide the best response to the “basic” social networks. As for the Instagram service, it has proven itself for various areas of online business, including online stores (especially with goods for women), creative services, etc.
Closely monitor web analytics – it will help determine which services the largest number of visitors and purchases come to you from. By default, VK, Facebook, Odnoklassniki are considered the most useful among our entrepreneurs, followed by Twitter, Instagram and Youtube.
At the same time, we recommend not to “spray” on all available social networks, but to focus on those that lead major customers. It will be useful to study the pages of competitors, which can suggest some useful details. Of course, this advice is for those projects that already have a small traffic to the site.
You can also create corporate accounts in all specified social networks, arrange them, but only 2-3 of them are actively promoted and updated – the most effective for you. So you can save your time and at the same time not miss potential customers.
A professional publishing and communication strategy for every channel is equally essential. For example, Facebook and VK are ideally suited for posting informational content (posts, articles, news), working with reviews, orders and customer requests, targeted advertising, etc.
In turn, Instagram ideally sells goods or services with photos, and on YouTube you can effectively post video reviews and presentations of your products, instructions.
Proper design of social networks – why is it so important?
It is not enough just to create company accounts in social networks, you also need to issue them in a high-quality manner. Proper branding plays a very important role, since any Internet user is now simply overloaded with information, especially in social networks. There is an opinion that an ordinary person sees hundreds of logos of various brands every day – both online and in reality.
Do not believe? Then just look back on the sides, go to your favourite sites and count the number of corporate symbols surrounding you.
Careful design of social networks will help to stand out against the background of numerous visual “spam”, and it will also provide your business with a number of advantages:
With it, you can attract the attention of users, help them better know your brand, highlight it against the background of symbols of other companies and competitors. The presence of a logo or other elements of corporate identity will allow the audience not to miss important news, promotions or other updates to your company;
You will be able to create a more holistic image of the company by branding social networks. Such sites are very important points of contact with customers, so the use of corporate identity will help you to remain consistent, while maintaining the integrity of your image in the eyes of the audience;
Branded content looks more attractive than regular photos, videos or text. With it, you can increase customer loyalty, gently advertise your brand, “accustom” them to your materials – as a result, they will respond positively to them by default.
As you can see, the competent design of social networks is of great importance for any enterprise, helping to establish a closer relationship with customers, which will positively affect the development of your business.
Social Media Branding Tips
So, you have developed a logo and corporate identity, created pages on social networks, defined their main goals (promotion of goods / services, work with reviews, etc.). Now is the time to proceed to the design of your accounts, following these tips:
Be consistent with the style of the pages, everywhere use the same fonts, color schemes, graphic elements, etc. Only in this way will you achieve that people will recognize your corporate colors even without a logo or company name;
The dimensions and other parameters of your logo should be adapted to the requirements of each individual social network. Do not use the logo of the same size for all sites, as it can be displayed there in cropped or stretched form. By the way, the Logaster service will help you immediately download various logo options of all necessary dimensions for popular social networks;
If the space on the avatar is limited, then it is better to use a simplified version of the logo, for example, without a text warehouse;
Pay special attention to the cover and photo (logo) of the account, because it is on them that the first look of each visitor is directed. It is important that they have the same style and color scheme with your corporate identity. You will be able to find a suitable caption for the theme of your business on photo stocks, or you can order it from a designer;
We recommend that you follow identical positioning and design when designing pages on different social networks. For example, if your logo on Facebook is in the lower right corner, then try to place it in about the same place and on other platforms (if possible);
You can also put any short text on the cover of your account – especially if it is really important / interesting information, for example, about a promotion, and you want users to see it first.
Having completed the design of the page, be sure to test it on all possible devices – PC, laptop, tablet, smartphone, etc. Make sure that all key elements look equally good at any screen resolution, not stretched or cropped. Any seeming trifle can significantly affect the reputation of your company and the loyalty of its audience.
Next, we will tell you how to upload your logo to the pages of popular social networks.
How to add an avatar (profile photo) on social networks
Below we consider the process of uploading a logo to Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Vkontakte, OK.ru, LinkedIn, YouTube and Pinterest. Make sure you have the right size logo versions.
Image sizes for social networks (2020):
Image to external links: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 630 px
Cover: 820 x 312 px
Profile Photo: 170 x 170 px
In contact with
Image to external links: 537 x 240 px
Picture for post: 700 x 500 px
Profile photo: 200 x 500 px
Tweet picture: 1024 x 675 px
Cover: 1500 x 500 px
Profile photo: 400 x 400 px
Post picture: 1080 x 1080 px
Profile photo: 110 x 110 px
Image over video: 1280 x 720 px
Channel cover: 2560 x 1440 px
Profile photo: 800 x 800 px
Picture for pin: 1000 x 1500 px
Profile photo: 165 x 165 px
Image to external links:: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 1200 px
Cover: 1584 x 768 px
Profile photo: 300 x 300 px
Picture for post: 1680 x 1680 px
Cover: 1340 x 320 px
Profile Photo: 190 x 190 px
How to upload an image
First, make sure that you have a logo in PNG format of the right size – you can add it to your Facebook page.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Facebook account and go to your page.
2. Move the cursor over the place for the photo and click on the camera icon.
3. Select “Upload Photo”.
4. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. If necessary, the image can be cropped and arranged in accordance with the plan.
5. Click “Save.”
How to add or change a cover:
1. Go to your page, hover over the cover image and click “Change Cover”.
2. Select Upload Photo.
3. Select the logo file and click Open. Position the image as you see fit.
4. Click Save.
Please note that although your profile photo is displayed on the user’s page as a square, in the news feed it takes the form of a circle. If you have a square logo, reduce its size so that the corners are not cut and it is not too crowded in a circle.
File size requirements are listed here.
Note: unlike Facebook, where business accounts are created on the basis of personal accounts, Twitter needs to have a separate page for the company or project.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Twitter account and open your page by clicking on your name.
2. Click the Edit profile button on the right side of the page and click on your photo. Click Select Photo.
3. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. Position the logo as you see fit.
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.
How to add or change the image in the header:
1. Go to your page and click the “Edit Profile” button.
2. Click on the header and select the Add header option.
3. Select a file and click “Open.”
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.
In contact with
File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a VK group and community:
1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
If you do not have an avatar yet, the text “Upload a photo” will be highlighted in its place;
(if the image is already available, then just point it and the pop-up menu will offer you to update the photo).
2. Click on it and upload the logo;
3. Make sure that when reducing the avatar to a round version, your logo does not cease to be recognizable. To do this, select the desired area by clicking on “Change thumbnail”.
How to add or change cover art in a VK group and community:
1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Go to community settings;
3, Click on “Download” opposite “Community Cover;
4. Download the logo;
Make sure that the logo is not ridiculously cropped.
File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a group in Odnoklassniki:
1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Hover over the profile picture and click on “Add Image” from the pop-up menu;
3. Download the logo.
File size requirements are listed here.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Instagram account from your phone. Open your profile by clicking on the corresponding icon.
2. Click on the profile photo and select “Upload Photo”. Select a file with a logo and press “Select”.
3. On the mobile device, click “Edit Profile” and select “Change Profile Photo”. After you select the file, click “Finish.”
File size requirements are listed here.
How to add a logo to your LinkedIn company page:
1. On your profile page, click on the photo thumbnail and select “Change” in the “Company Page” tab.
2. Click the “Edit” button and click on the “Edit Page” line.
3. Scroll to the “Company Logo” section. Click the “Edit” button and add / change the logo. You can also change the location of the logo by dragging it to the desired location.
4. Click “Save.”
File size requirements are listed here and here.
How to add or change a profile photo (channel icon):
1. Log into your YouTube account.
2. Click on the line My Channel, located under the profile photo in the upper right.
3. Hover over an existing photo and click on the edit icon.
4. Click “Edit” and select the logo file. Position it as you see fit.
How to add or change channel background image:
1. Going to My channel, hover over the background image and click on the edit (or add) icon.
2. Download the file and see how it is displayed on various devices. Position it as you see fit.
3. Click “Select.”
File size requirements are listed here.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Pinterest account.
2. Click on the ellipsis at the top, then click on the “Settings” button. Scroll down to the Profile section.
3. Click “Change Image,” then select the logo file. Ra
arrange it as you see fit.
4. Click “Save Settings.”
Useful services for designing social networks
We have prepared a small list of services that will be useful to you when designing social networks. Bookmark them so you don’t lose:
Logaster – creating and downloading logos optimized for the requirements of social networks.
Crello – create designs for social media covers.
Sproutsociale – optimization of the size of finished images to the requirements of social networks.
Pablo.buffer.com – search for images for covers and overlay text on them.
Pixabay is a free photo stock for finding cover pictures.
Pexels is a bank of free photos for creating covers and posts on social networks.
Unsplash is another photo stock for social networks.
Jaymantri – abstract pictures for creating cover or post backgrounds.
Designspiration – search for inspiration.
Fonts.google.com – a collection of free fonts.
Coolors.co – collections of color schemes that will be useful in the design of posts and covers.
Google.com/test/mobile-friendly – check page optimization for mobile devices.
Representative offices in social networks significantly stimulate the development of the company, making it possible to increase its recognition and increase the number of points of contact with customers. Following these tips, you will create really powerful marketing tools that will help you attract many potential customers from popular social media.
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