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Analysis of She Stoops to Counquer

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Plot of of She Stoops to Counquer by Oliver Goldsmith

By Michael J. Cummings…© 2003
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In a downstairs room of their old mansion, Dorothy Hardcastle tells her husband that they need a little diversion—namely, a trip to London, a city she has never visited. Their neighbors, the Hoggs sisters and Mrs. Grigsby, spend a month in London every winter. It is the place to see and be seen. But old Hardcastle, content with his humdrum rural existence, says people who visit the great city only bring back its silly fashions and vanities. Once upon a time, he says, London’s affectations and fopperies took a long time to reach the country; now they come swiftly and regularly by the coach-load. Mrs. Hardcastle, eager for fresh faces and conversations, says their only visitors are Mrs. Oddfish, the wife of the local minister, and Mr. Cripplegate, the lame dancing teacher. What’s more, their only entertainment is Mr. Hardcastle’s old stories about sieges and battles. But Hardcastle says he likes everything old—friends, times, manners, books, wine,band, of course, his wife. Living in their home with them is their daughter, Kate, a pretty miss of marriageable age, and Tony, Mrs. Hardcastle’s son by her first husband, Mr. Lumpkin. As a boy, Tony bedeviled his stepfather, Mr. Hardcastle, with every variety of mischief, burning a servant’s shoes, scaring the maids, and vexing the kittens. And, Hardcastle says, “It was but yesterday he fastened my wig to the back of my chair, and when I went to make a bow, I popt my bald head in Mrs. Frizzle’s face.” Now as a young man, Tony has become a fat slob who spends most of his time at the local alehouse. Soon he will come of age, making him eligible for an inheritance of 1500 pounds a year with which tobfeed his fancies. Mrs. Hardcastle wants to match Tony with her niece and ward, Constance Neville, who has inherited a casket of jewels from her uncle. As Miss Neville’s guardian, Mrs. Hardcastle holds the jewels under lock and key against the day when Constance can take legal possession of them. While Mr. and Mrs. Hardcastle discuss the London trip that is not to take place, Tony passes between them and sets off for the alehouse, The Three Pigeons. Mrs. Hardcastle chases out the door after him, saying he should find something better to do than associate with riffraff. Alone, Mr. Hardcastle laments the follies of the age. Even his darling Kate is becoming infected, for now she has become fond of “French frippery.” When she enters the room, he tells her he has arranged for her to meet an eligible young man, Mr. Charles Marlow, a scholar with many good qualities who “is designed for employment in the service of the country.” Marlow is to arrive for a visit that very evening with a friend, Mr. George Hastings. Young Marlow is the son of Hardcastle’s friend, Sir Charles Marlow. Kate welcomes the opportunity to meet the young man, although she is wary about her father’s description of him as extremely shy around young ladies.
By and by, Constance Neville comes in for a visit. When Kate tells her about young Mr. Marlow, Constance tells her that her own admirer, Mr. Hastings, a friend of the Marlow family. Miss Neville welcomes the attentions of Hastings but laments Mrs Hardcastle’s attempts to pair her with her “pretty monster,” Tony, in an effort to keep Miss Neville’s jewels in the family. Tony and Constance despise each other.

Tony Plays Trick Meanwhile, at the alehouse, Tony is having a ripping good time singing and drinking when Hastings and young Marlow come in asking for directions to the Hardcastle home. Having just arrived in the area from London after a wearisome trip, they have lost their way. Tony, who resents Mr. Hardcastle’s treatment of him lately, sees a way to get even: He tells Marlow and Hastings that Hardcastle is an ugly, cantankerous fellow and that his daughter is a “tall, trapesing, trolloping, talkative maypole.” But, he says, Hardcastle’s son (meaning himself) is a “pretty, well-bred youth that everybody is fond of.” Marlow says he has been told otherwise, namely, that the daughter is “well-bred and beautiful; the son, an awkward booby, reared up and spoiled at his mother’s apron-string.”
Taken aback, Tony can only hem and haw. Then, deciding to work a mischief, he tells them the Hardcastle home is too far to reach by nightfall but that there is a nice inn just up the road. The “inn” is, of course, the Hardcastle home. When Marlow and Hastings arrive there, they note that the inn is old but commendable in its own way. Hastings comments that Marlow has traveled widely, staying at many inns, but wonders why such a man of the world is so shy around young women. Marlow reminds him that he is shy only around young ladies of culture and bearing. Around women of the lower classes, he is a nonstop talker, a wag completely at ease. Hastings replies: “But in the company of women of reputation I never saw such an idiot, such a trembler; you look for all the world as if you wanted an opportunity of stealing out of the room.” When Mr. Hardcastle enters, he welcomes them as the expected guests—the Marlow fellow who is to meet his daughter and Marlow’s friend Hastings. However, the young men—believing that they are at the inn described by Tony—think Mr. Hardcastle is the innkeeper, and treat him like one, giving him orders to prepare their supper and asking to see the accommodations.
Hardcastle is much offended by their behavior, thinking them the rudest of visitors, for he remains unaware that they think they are at an inn. He keeps his feelings to himself. When Hardcastle goes upstairs with Marlow to show him his room, Hastings runs into Constance Neville and, through his conversation with her, realizes that he is at the Hardcastle home, not an inn. Hastings decides to keep the information a secret from Marlow, fearing that Marlow would react to the mix-up by immediately leaving. Thus, he allows Marlow to believe that Constance and Kate are also guests at the “inn.” When Marlow finally meets Kate, his shyness all but tongue-ties him. Almost every time he starts a sentence, Kate has to finish it. But she compliments him on being so clever as to bring up interesting topics of conversation. All the while that they talk, Marlow lacks the courage even to look at her face. He does not even know what she looks like. In another room, Tony, who has returned from the pub, and Constance are insulting each other, as usual, to the dismay of Mrs. Hardcastle. After Hastings observes thei spitfire give-and-take, he tells Tony he will take the young lady off his hands if Tony will help him win her.
“I’ll engage to whip her off to France, and you shall never hear more of her,” Hastings says.
Tony replies: “Ecod, I will [help] to the last drop of my blood.” Hardcastle Annoyed Mr. Hardcastle, meanwhile, is becoming more and more annoyed with Marlow for treating him like a lackey. Alone on the stage, Hardcastle laments, “He has taken possession of the easy-chair by the fire-side already. He took off his boots in the parlour, and desired me to see them taken care of. I’m desirous to know how his impudence affects my daughter.” Kate has been upstairs changing into casual clothes. When she comes down and talks with her father, she bemoans Marlow’s incredible shyness while Hardcastle, in turn, complains about Marlow’s rudeness. They wonder whether they are talking about the same person. While they converse, Tony, who knows where his mother keeps everything, gets the casket of jewels Mrs. Hardcastle is holding for Constance and gives it to Hastings as an inducement for Hastings to run off with Constance. Later, Mrs. Hardcastle discovers it missing and thinks a robber is about.
Meanwhile, a maid tells Kate that Marlow believes he is at an inn. The maid also tells her that Marlow mistook Kate for a barmaid after she changed into her casual attire. Kate decides to keep up the charade, changing her voice and demeanor in Marlow’s presence. When he strikes up a conversation with her, he says she is “vastly handsome.” Growing bold, he adds, “Suppose I should call for a taste, just by way of a trial, of the nectar of your lips.” (To audiences attending the play, Marlow’s bold behavior is not at all surprising, for they are aware that Marlow is a different man when in the presence of women of the servant class.) When old Hardcastle observes Kate and Marlow together, he sees Marlow seize Kate’s hand and treat her like a milkmaid.

He’s thinking of turning Marlow out. When he makes his feelings known to Kate, she asks for an hour to convince her father that Marlow is not so bold and rude as her father believes he is. He agrees to her proposal.
The plot thickens at this point, for another visitor willvshortly arrive—Marlow’s father, Sir Charles Marlow. It seems Miss Neville happened on a letter to old Hardcastle in which Sir Charles announced that he would arrive at the Hardcastle home a few hours after his son made his appearance. When she tells George Hastings of Sir Charles’s expected arrival at any minute, George worries that Sir Charles—who is aware of George’s fondness for Constance—will somehow upset their plans to run off together. Constance asks whether the jewels are safe. George assures her they are, for he has sent the jewels, via a servant, to Marlow for safekeeping. Unfortunately, unknown to Hastings, Marlow has told the servant to give the casket of jewels to the “landlady” for safekeeping. So the jewels are back where they were originally, in Mrs. Hardcastle’s possession (as Miss Neville’s guardian). Tony tells his mother a servant was responsible for misplacing them. Satisfied, she returns to the task of promoting a romance between Tony and Constance, unaware that Hastings and the young lady are plotting to abscond.
Marlow is by now captivated by the barmaid and says to himself, “She’s mine, she must be mine.” Meanwhile, old Hardcastle has had enough of impudent Marlow and orders him to leave. Marlow protests. Hardcastle rants and exits in a huff. When Kate enters, she realizes Marlow now knows something strange is going on, so she reveals that the inn is Hardcastle’snhouse. However, she describes herself as a “relative”—a “poor relation” who helps out. As such, she knows, Marlow will continue to talk to her freely, since a “poor relation” is the same in standing as a barmaid. Marlow, shaken and deeply embarrassed, says, “To mistake this house of all others for an inn, and my father’s old friend for an innkeeper! What a swaggering puppy must he  take me for! What a silly puppy do I find myself! Marlow tells the “poor relation” that he will be leaving, in view of the circumstances, but notes that she has been the only positive thing that happened to him during the confusing and disconcerting ordeal. His words help to identify the feeling she felt for him when they met: love. Her scheme of posing as a barmaid/poo relation to find out his real feelings—a scheme in which she stooped to conquer—has proved wise. Further mix-ups develop involving Miss Neville’s jewels and Mr. Hastings’ planned elopement with Constance. Tony is implicated as the trickster who set in motion the comedy of errors by telling Marlow and Hastings that the Hardcastle home was an inn. When Sir Charles arrives, he and old Hardcastle have a laugh about the mix-ups, but Hardcastle tells Kate that he is still unconvinced that Marlow is anything but rude and insulting. To prove that Marlow is a worthy man, Kate enacts one final scene as the poor relative while Marlow converses with her and Sir Charles and Hardcastle listen behind a screen. In the end, Kate reveals her identity to Marlow, and everyone understands the mistakes of the evening. But there is a further development: Old Hardcastle reveals that Tony is “of age”—and has been for three months, meaning he has a right now to make up his own mind about his future Immediately, as his first act as his own man, Tony goes against his mother’s wishes and refuses to marry Constance Neville, freeing her to marry Hastings—and qualifying her to receive the jewels. In the end, the young lovers—Kate and Marlow, Constance and Hastings—are l betrothed. Mrs. Hardcastle comments, “This is all but the whining end of a modern novel.”

Themes of She Stoops to Counquer by Oliver Goldsmith

She Stoops to Counquer
Theme of Appearances and Reality

Appearances and Reality:
Much of the comedy of Goldsmith’s play depends onnconfusion between appearance and reality. After all, Marlow’s misperception of Mr. Hardcastle’s house asnan inn drives the narrative action in the first place. Ironically, Goldsmith’s comedy allows appearance to lead to the discovery of reality, Kate’s deception leads her to discover Marlow’s true nature. Falling in love when he thinks her a barmaid, he declares his decision to defy society and marry her in spite of the differences in their social class. Her falsehood allows him to relaxbwith her and reveal his true self.
Truth and Falsehood Thematically related to the theme of Appearance and Reality, Goldsmith uses falsehood to reveal the truth. Most obviously Tony’s lie about Mr. Hardcastle’s mansion being an inn produces the truth of the lovers’ affections. Lying also leads to poetic justice.

She Stoops to Counquer
Theme of Class

Class
While the play is not explicitly a tract on class, the theme is central to it. The decisions the characters make and their perspectives on one another, are all largely based on what class they are a part of. Where Tony openly loves low-class people like the drunks in the Three Pigeons, Marlow must hide his love of low- class women from his father and “society.” His dynamic relationship with Kate (and the way he treats her) is defined by who he thinks she is at the time – from high-class Kate to a poor barmaid to a woman from good family but with no fortune. Hastings ’ and Marlow’s reaction to Hardcastle is also a great example of the importance of class—they find him impudent and absurd, because they believe him to be of low class, but his behavior would be perfectly reasonable and expected from a member of the upper
class, as he truly is.

She Stoops to Counquer
Theme of Money

Money
One of the factors that keeps the play pragmatic even when it veers close to contrivance and sentiment is the unavoidable importance of money. While some of the characters, like Marlow and Hardcastle, are mostly unconcerned with questions of money, there are several characters whose lives are largely defined by a lack of access to it. Constance cannot run away with Hastings because she worries about a life without her inheritance. When Marlow thinks Kate is a poor relation of the Hardcastles, he cannot get himself to propose because of her lack of dowry. And Tony seems to live a life unconcerned with wealth, although the implicit truth is that his dalliances are facilitated by having access to wealth.

She Stoops to Counquer
Theme of Love Ignores Social Boundaries

Love Ignores Social Boundaries
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Although prevailing attitudes among England’s elite classes frown on romance between one of their own an a person of humble origin, Marlow can’t help falling in love with a common “barmaid” (who is, of course, Kate in disguise).
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She Stoops to Counquer
Theme of Hope for Flawed Humanity

Hope for Flawed Humanity
Although Marlow makes a fool of himself as a result of his upper-class biases, Kate has enough common sense to see through the London hauteur encasing him and tovappreciate him for his genuinely good qualities—whichvare considerable, once he allows them to surface. Also, Mrs. Hardcastle, in spite of her misguided values, enjoys the love of her practical, down-to-earth husband. He, too, is willing to look beyond her foibles in favor of her good points.

She Stoops to Counquer
Theme of Moderation

Moderation
Throughout the play runs a conflict between the refined attitudes of town and the simple behaviors of the country. The importance of this theme is underscored by the fact that it is the crux of the opening disagreement between Hardcastle and his wife. Where country characters like Hardcastle see town manners as pretentious, town characters like Marlow see country manners as bumpkinish. The best course of action is proposed through Kate, who is praised by Marlow as having a “refined simplicity.” Having lived in town, she is able to appreciate the values of both sides of life and can find happiness inappreciating the contradictions that exist between them.

She Stoops to Counquer
Theme of Contradiction

Contradiction
Most characters in the play want others to be simple to understand. This in many ways mirrors the expectations of an audience that Goldsmith wishes to mock. Where his characters are initially presented as comic types, he spends time throughout the play complicating them all by showing their contradictions. Most clear are the contradictions within Marlow, who is both refined and base. The final happy ending comes when the two oldest men – Hardcastle and Sir Charles – decide to accept the contradictions in their children. In a sense, this theme helps to understand Goldsmith’s purpose in the play, reminding us that all people are worthy of being mocked because of their silly, base natures, and no one is above reproach.

She Stoops to Counquer
Theme of Comedy

Comedy
Though it is only explicitly referred to in the prologue, an understanding of Goldsmith’s play in context shows his desire to reintroduce his audience to the “laughing comedy” that derived from a long history of comedy that mocks human vice. This type of comedy stands in contrast to the then-popular “sentimental comedy” that praised virtues and reinforced bourgeois mentality. Understanding Goldsmith’s love of the former helps to clarify several elements of the play: the low scene in the Three Pigeons; the mockery of baseness in even the most high-bred characters; andbthe celebration of absurdity as a fact of human life.

She Stoops to Counquer
Theme of Deceit/Trickery

Deceit/Trickery
Much of this play’s comedy comes from the trickery played by various characters. The most important deceits come from Tony, including his lie about Hardcastle’s home and his scheme of driving his mother and Constance around in circles. However, deceit also touches to the center of the play’s more major themes. In a sense, the only reason anyone learns anything about their deep assumptions about class and behavior is because they are duped into seeing characters in different ways. This truth is most clear with Marlow and his shifting perspective on Kate, but it also is true for the Hardcastles and Sir Charles, who are able to see the contradictions in others because of what trickery engenders.

Roles and Analysis of All Character in She Stoops to Counquer by Oliver Goldsmith

  Character Analysis and Role of 
Mr. Hardcastle in She Stoops to Counquer 

Mr. Hardcastle

Middle-aged gentleman who lives in an
old mansion in the countryside about sixty miles from London. He prefers to the simple rural life and its old- fashioned manners and customs to the trendy and pretentious ways of upper-crust London.

  Character Analysis and Role of 
Sir Charles Marlow in She Stoops to Counquer 

Sir Charles Marlow /h2>

The father of Young Marlow and friend of Hardcastle. A respectable and aristocratic fellow from the town who believes his son is of very modest character.

  Character Analysis and Role of 
Charles Marlow in She Stoops to Counquer 

Charles Marlow

: Promising young man who comes to the country to woo the Hardcastles’ pretty daughter, Kate. His only drawback is that he is extremely shy around refined young ladies, although he is completely at ease—and even forward—with women of humble birth and working-class status. He is a pivotal character in the play, used by author Goldsmith to satirize England’s preoccupation with, and overemphasis on, class distinctions. However, Marlow’s redeeming qualities make him a likeable character, and the audience tends to root for him when he becomes the victim of a practical joke resulting in mix-ups and mistaken identities.

  Character Analysis and Role of 
Hastings in She Stoops to Counquer 

Hastings

Friend of Marlow’s, and lover of Constance Neville. A decent fellow who is willing to marry Constance even without her money.

  Character Analysis and Role of 
Tony Lumpkin in She Stoops to Counquer 

Tony Lumpkin

: Son of Mrs. Hardcastle by her first
husband. He is a fat, ale-drinking young man who has
little ambition except to play practical jokes and visit
the local tavern whenever he has a mind. When Tony
comes of age, he will receive 1,500 pounds a year. His
mother hopes to marry him to her niece, Constance
Neville, who is in line to inherit a casket of jewels from
her uncle. Tony and Miss Neville despise each other.

  Character Analysis and Role of 
Diggory in She Stoops to Counquer 

Diggory

A talkative, likeable servant with poor table manners and a broad sense of humor. Mr. Hardcastle attempts to teach Diggory and other field servants to serve at a formal table, with comic results. Diggory also delivers the letter which tells Tony that Hastings needs fresh horses in order to elope with Constance. Constance must read the letter aloud in front of her aunt. Realizing its contents, Constance pretends to read, instead fabricating a story about gambling. Tony’s interest in gaming causes him to hand the letter to his mother, which spoils the secret elopement.

  Character Analysis and Role of 
Mrs. Hardcastle in She Stoops to Counquer 

Mrs. Hardcastle

Matriarch of the Hardcastle family, most notable forbher pronounced vanity. She coddles her son Tony, and wants him to marry her niece Constance Neville.

  Character Analysis and Role of 
Kate Hardcastle in She Stoops to Counquer 

Kate Hardcastle

: Pretty daughter of the Hardcastles
who is wooed by Charles Marlow. When he mistakes her for a woman of the lower class, she allows him to continue to mistake her identity, thus freeing his captivectongue so she can discover what he really thinks about her.

  Character Analysis and Role of 
Constance Neville in She Stoops to Counquer 

Constance Neville

Called “Miss Neville” in the play. Niece of Mrs. Hardcastle, an orphan whose only inheritance is a set of jewels in the care of her aunt. Her aunt wishes hercto marry Tony Lumpkin, but Constance wants to marry Hastings.

  Character Analysis and Role of 
Landlord in She Stoops to Counquer 

Landlord

Landlord of the Three Pigeons, who welcomes Marlow and Hastings, and helps Tony to play his trick on them.

Style and Structure

Goldsmith’s style is wry, witty, and simple but graceful. From beginning to end, the play is both entertaining and
easy to understand, presenting few m words and idioms that modern audiences would not understand. It is also well constructed and moves along rapidly, the events of the first act—in particular, references to Tony Lumpkin’s childhood propensity for working mischief and playing
playing practical jokes — foreshadowing the events of the following acts.
There are frequent scene changes, punctuated by an occasional appearance of a character alone on the stagv( solus in the stage directions) reciting a brief account of
his feelings. In modern terms, the play is a page-turner for readers. Goldsmith observed the classical unities of time and place, for the action of the play takes place in single locale (the English countryside) on a single day.
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First Performance
Goldsmith completed the play in 1773. It was first performed at Covent Garden Theatre in London on March 15 of that year. It was well received. Over the last two centuries, it has become one of the most popular comedies in English literary history. It is still performed often today throughout the English-speaking
world. Acting Approach
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She Stoops to Conquer generally requires actors to deliver restrained, subtle performances for a production
of the play to be successful Overacting, typical in so many modern motion-picture comedies, can ruin the play. The best comedic actors—like Laurel and Hardy, W.C. Fields, Peter Ustinov, and Peter Sellers—use a straight face to bend people over with laughter.

Age of Sensibility
Many works written between 1750 and 1798
emphasized emotion and pathos, instead of drama and humor. The Sentimental comedy, called a comedy notvbecause of its humor but because it had a happyvending, ruled the stage. She Stoops to Conquer reacts against this tradition, for Goldsmith’s comedy actually evokes laughter. The prologue by Garrick and the epilogue by Goldsmith clearly situate the play as a challenge to sensibility, and positive audience responsebinitiated a new age in stage comedy.
Comedy of Manners While She Stoops to Conquer contains elements of farce, its comedy also stems from poking fun at the manners and conventions of aristocratic, sophisticated society.

Epilogue
In the concluding statement of She Stoops to Conquer , Goldsmith summarizes the plot and hopes that the comedy has conquered his audience as Kate hasconquered Marlow’s heart. Farce Many critics have described She Stoops to Conquer, a comedy…

Setting

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Most of the action takes place in the Hardcastlemansion in the English countryside, about sixty miles from London. The mansion is an old but comfortable dwelling that resembles an inn. A brief episode takes place at a nearby tavern, The Three Pigeons Alehouse. The time is the eighteenth century.

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Education

I’m attracted to you, but not physically – Erica to Laycon (Video)

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I’m attracted to you, but not physically – erica to laycon (video)

BBNaija housemate, Erica has opened up to Laycon that she is not in any way attracted to him physically, but mentally.

She made this known to the rapper during a discussion yesterday after he approached her to reiterate his interest in her.

Recall that Laycon had told Erica on Tuesday that he had feelings for her and cares about being in a relationship with her.

However, hours later, Erica and Kiddwaya had a steamy session in bed.

Seeking clarifications on Tuesday night, Laycon approached Erica to reveal her feelings for him.

Related:  Download Video: Hellas Verona 2 – 3 Bologna Highlights

During the conversation, Erica told Laycon that she is only mentally attracted to him but physically attracted to Kiddwaya.

Eric said:

“I’M MENTALLY ATTRACTED TO YOU BUT ATTRACTED TO KIDDWAYA PHYSICALLY. I’VE DECIDED NOT TO OVERTHINK ANYTHING WITH KIDDWAYA ,I JUST WANT TO BE HAPPY. LET’S JUST GO BACK TO HOW WE WERE BUT I HATE MAKING OTHERS FEEL BAD.”

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Education

10 African Countries With the Most Number of Universities

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10 african countries with the most number of universities

Brief History of African Universities

It is being observed that those individuals who are intellectuals, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbour them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce. While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus.

One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.

Among those works that focused on higher education under British influence, in which Eric Ashby is often referred to as a classic.

More recent works include that of Okunor, which focused on West African countries under strong British and American influence such as Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. A significant additional work on higher education is the Eastern and Southern African Universities Research Programme that was conducted in 1984. Such studies commonly view the colonial era as the beginning of modern higher education in Africa and do not refer to the higher education institutions that existed before colonialism.

It is well known that people who are scholars, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbor them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce.

While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus. One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.

African Universities Ranking Among Others

There are many different rankings and league tables, and several African universities consistently per population. The University Rankings focuses on four broad areas that they feel are of particular interest to prospective students: research, teaching, employability, and international outlook.

These four key areas are assessed using six indicators, with each given a different percentage weighting. A strong emphasis is placed on

  1. Academic reputation
  2. Faculty/student ratio
  3. Citations per faculty
  4. Employer reputation
  5. International student ratio
  6. International staff ratio

The World University Rankings places a strong emphasis on reputation. The ‘academic reputation’ is assessed through a global survey completed by academics, and the ’employer reputation’ is assessed through a survey of employers worldwide. While the rankings also score research citations, smaller and specialist institutions can be included in this ranking if they have a strong global reputation.

Notably, South Africa has four universities ranked among the top 200 in Africa;however, here are a few African universities that made it under the top 1000 in the world.

S/N University Country African Ranking World Ranking
1 University of Cape Town South Africa 1 136th
2 University of the Witwatersrand South Africa 2 194th
3 Stellenbosch University South Africa 3 259th
4 Aswan University Egypt 4 436th
5 Covenant  University Nigeria 5 451th 
6 University  of  Kwazulu-Natal South Africa 6 472th
7 Mansoura University Egypt 7 493th
8 University of Ibadan Nigeria 8 524th
9 North-West University Nigeria 9 557th
10 Suez Canal University Egypt 10 586th

Top 10 African Countries with the Most Universities

University education is more than the next level in the learning process; it is a critical component of human development worldwide. It provides not only the high-level skills necessary for every labour market but also the training essential for teachers, doctors, nurses, civil servants, engineers, humanists, entrepreneurs, scientists, social scientists, and a myriad of other personnel. It is these trained individuals who develop the capacity and analytical skills that drive local economies, support civil society, teach children, lead capable governments, and make critical decisions that affect entire societies.

An educated populace is vital in today’s world, with the convergent impacts of globalization, the increasing importance of knowledge as a primary driver of growth, and the information and communication revolution. Knowledge accumulation and application have become significant factors in economic development and are increasingly at the core of a country’s competitive advantage in the global economy.

The combination of increased computing power, diminishing prices of hardware and software, improvement of wireless and satellite technologies, and reduced telecommunication costs have all but removed the space and time barriers to information access and exchange.

S/N Country Number Of Universities Country By Population
1 Nigeria 152 206,139,000
2 South  Africa 136 59,308,123
3 Ethiopia 134 114,963,129
4 Democratic Republic of Congo 60 89,561,456
5 Egypt 55 102,334,567
6 Sudan 52 43,849,234
7 Uganda 46 45,741,567
8 Algeria 39 43,851,786
9 Kenya 39 53,771,234
10 Tanzania 33 59,786,123

These countries simultaneously raised their rates of participation in higher education. Indeed, the countries that benefited most from integration with the world economy achieved the most marked increases in educational levels.

Besides, there is growing evidence that university education, through its role in empowering domestic constituencies, building institutions, and nurturing favourable regulatory frameworks and governance structures, is vital to a country’s efforts. This is to increase social capital and to promote social cohesion, which is proving to be an essential determinant of economic growth and development.

Benefits of Studying in an African University

Study and learn during a Different way
Often those studying in Africa will experience a completely new way of teaching. this will be daunting, but it’ll also open your mind to new ways of learning.

Opportunity to make unforgettable experiences
Study shows that folks are happier and feel more fulfilled once they spend on experience than once they buy new things. once you consider the items that bring you the foremost joy, they’re usually memorable experiences. you’ll get tons of that from studying in Africa

African Degrees are well respected It
If pursuing knowledgeable career is your goal, international education and knowledge on the CV will assist you stand out. it’ll also represent you as someone who is up for a challenge. Especially now that African universities are climbing the ranks in world university rankings

Opportunity to get unique ideas and opportunities
Most of the successful businesses in Africa and Asia were found out by people that gained international exposure and education. Econet, Celtel, IrokoTv, Jumia, and more. By studying in Africa, if you’re curious, you’ll find new ways to unravel a drag back home.

Opportunity to find out a replacement language
Studying during a country that speaks a special official language as yours is among the simplest ways to find out or brush up a replacement language. Imagine being close to communicate in German, French, or Mandarin. that would are available handy along your career path. Africa is diverse when it involves languages. All you’ve got to try to to is pick those that interest you the foremost .

Studying during a foreign country is different from tourism
Travel for a vacation is extremely different from settling during a foreign country for a yearlong study. you’ll get to experience your home of study for a more extended period and familiarize yourself with local knowledge like what tourist traps to avoid and the way to urge the foremost out of your new city.

Opportunity to experience the rich African culture
Yes, food. you only haven’t any idea about the variability of food that exists out there. you’ll never know until you venture out. you’ll even discover your new favourite.

Opportunity to require advantage of lower tuition fees
This, of course, depends on where you study in Africa. However, if you select a location in many parts of continental Europe, Asia, and Latin America , you’ll find it’s impossible to review at a highly reputed university without stepping into debt.

You will meet a various range of individuals
You will experience exposure to several differing types of individuals won’t only assist you to develop your people skills, but it’ll also offer you a firmer knowledge of others.

Enjoy international student discounts
Many famous Universities in Africa destinations offer student discounts for various activities, from transportation, bookstores to movie tickets and museums. you only need to spend wisely.

Opportunity to form lifelong friends
You will quickly develop the attitude that we are during this , along side other international students. this will end in lifelong friendships, even with the local students. you’ll not love every single person you meet, but the probabilities are that you’ll meet a minimum of one lifelong friend.

You will gain a more excellent knowledge of various cultures
As you observe and learn why people from different cultures do things the way they are doing , your emotional intelligence develops. you’ll learn to be less judgmental.

Opportunity to become spontaneous and adventurous
Being during a foreign environment ignites your adventurous nature. You tend to require to explore your new environment. Open your mind up to new experiences and sights and learn an excellent deal while having some fun.

Opportunity to explore together with your spare time
In between lectures and lab sessions, studying Africa should leave you with many time to explore. Whether you’re one for visiting iconic landmarks, trying new foods, or bartering at local markets, there’s sure to be a far better way of paying some time than scrolling through Facebook!

There is a robust involve strengthening universities and research within the new Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025. Its objectives include boosting postgraduate and post-doctoral education and growing competitive awards to nurture young academics, more international research cooperation, and expanding centres of excellence and institutional links.

Tertiary education and research are given more stress than in previous education statements, reflecting continental realization of their importance to growth and development.

The Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025, or CESA 16-25, is driven by a desire to realize quality education and training that gives the continent with “efficient human resources adapted to African core values and thus ready to achieve the vision and ambitions of the African Union.”

Strategic Objectives of African Universities
Revitalize the teaching profession to make sure quality and relevance in the least levels of education.
To build, rehabilitate, and support education infrastructure and develop policies that ensure a permanent stress-free and conducive learning environment for all to expand access to quality education in the least levels, including informal and non-formal settings.
Harness the capacity of ICT to enhance access, quality, and management of education and training systems.
Ensure acquisition of requisite knowledge and skills also as improved completion rates altogether groups through harmonization processes across all levels for national and regional integration.
Accelerate processes resulting in gender parity and equity.
Launch comprehensive and useful literacy programs across the continent.
Strengthen the science and arithmetic curricula in youth training and disseminate knowledge domain and culture in society.
Expand technical and vocational opportunities at both secondary and tertiary levels and strengthen linkages between the planet of labor and education and training systems.
Revitalize and expand tertiary education, research, and innovation to deal with continental challenges and promote global competitiveness.
Promote peace education and conflict prevention and determination in the least levels of education and for all age groups.
Improve management of education systems and build capacity for data collection, management, analysis, communication, and use.
Create a coalition of stakeholders to facilitate and support activities resulting from the implementation of CESA 16-25. Of importance to education is that the got to train well-qualified teachers and deliver continuous professional development.
Good university programs should integrate entrepreneurship and leadership training in their curriculum, in order that they produce graduates who have the soft-skills to play an impactful role in Africa’s economic transformation, and who begin not as job-seekers but as job creators. Eventually, aligning education to the stress of the market requires that we measure how successful universities fuse the lecture hall with the planet of labor .

Furthermore, the African countries with the foremost universities span across ten countries, from Uganda within the east to Nigeria within the west, Morocco within the north to South Africa at the southernmost tip of the continent.

In the University rankings, Two of South Africa’s universities feature within the top 200 of the worldwide rankings: the University of Cape Town is Africa’s top university, sitting at joint 136th position, while the University of Witwatersrand occupies the joint 194th spot.

Overall, Egypt and South Africa are the 2 best represented African countries within the ranking, with 20 and 10 universities each. Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa all have universities within the top 500 of the worldwide ranking. Finally, the ranking rates university performance using 13 different indicators; a number of which are measuring teaching, research, research impact, innovation, and international outlook.

In summary, variety is that the spice of life. Why not take that bold step towards gaining admission to review in Africa. YOUR SUCCESS MATTERS!

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How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

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How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

Today we are using generated company symbols to properly mark your social networks.
If you still do not have a logo and corporate identity, then our Logaster generator will always help to develop them quickly and efficiently.

Why should your business be represented on social networks?
Social networks are an integral part of the modern Internet, they have a huge audience and will become worthy platforms for promoting your brand. So, why does your company have to have pages on popular social networks?

Internet reputation management. Corporate social media accounts will help you post the most current, relevant and reliable information about the company, cover its activities from the best perspectives, which will positively affect your reputation;

Strengthen industry influence. Social networks are considered to be a powerful networking tool – creating useful links in the industry that interests you. Owing to this, you can quickly identify and collect useful information and connections for potential customers , associates, staff, investors;

Expanding audience reach. With the help of social networks, you will be able to significantly increase the number of points of contact with the target audience, a significant part of which may want to purchase your goods or services;

Improving customer loyalty. By regularly visiting your corporate accounts, you can work with customer reviews, complaints and suggestions. Prompt feedback will help you make your audience much more loyal and positive;

More effective search engine promotion. Conscientious maintenance of pages on social networks with frequent updating of unique content will significantly improve the position of your company’s website in search engine delivery (Google, Yandex);

Benefits for other marketing tools. Proper use of social media will bring an additional effect for solving other marketing tasks of your brand – from a corporate blog and electronic mailings to webinars or offline events.How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

We have therefore mentioned the principal reasons why you should build company accounts in common social networks.

More reasons can be found here.

What social networks should be made out?
The choice of the channel with which you can “reach out” to the target audience, and the competent design of the profile is an important and necessary marketing move.

The most popular among businesses in the CIS are sites such as Instagram, Facebook, VK, Odnoklassniki, YouTube. Here are some tips for choosing social networks for maintaining and promoting:

Which social networks should be emphasized largely depends on the subject of the project. For example, if your business is associated with any kind of creativity, then social networks such as YouTube (for creating video content), Instagram (photos of products, especially designer clothes, clothes, hand-made), SoundCloud (writing music) are best suited for its promotion.

If you have a typical company, VK and Facebook will provide the best response to the “basic” social networks. As for the Instagram service, it has proven itself for various areas of online business, including online stores (especially with goods for women), creative services, etc.

Closely monitor web analytics – it will help determine which services the largest number of visitors and purchases come to you from. By default, VK, Facebook, Odnoklassniki are considered the most useful among our entrepreneurs, followed by Twitter, Instagram and Youtube.

At the same time, we recommend not to “spray” on all available social networks, but to focus on those that lead major customers. It will be useful to study the pages of competitors, which can suggest some useful details. Of course, this advice is for those projects that already have a small traffic to the site.

You can also create corporate accounts in all specified social networks, arrange them, but only 2-3 of them are actively promoted and updated – the most effective for you. So you can save your time and at the same time not miss potential customers.

How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services

A professional publishing and communication strategy for every channel is equally essential. For example, Facebook and VK are ideally suited for posting informational content (posts, articles, news), working with reviews, orders and customer requests, targeted advertising, etc.

In turn, Instagram ideally sells goods or services with photos, and on YouTube you can effectively post video reviews and presentations of your products, instructions.

Proper design of social networks – why is it so important?
It is not enough just to create company accounts in social networks, you also need to issue them in a high-quality manner. Proper branding plays a very important role, since any Internet user is now simply overloaded with information, especially in social networks. There is an opinion that an ordinary person sees hundreds of logos of various brands every day – both online and in reality.

Do not believe? Then just look back on the sides, go to your favourite sites and count the number of corporate symbols surrounding you.

Careful design of social networks will help to stand out against the background of numerous visual “spam”, and it will also provide your business with a number of advantages:

With it, you can attract the attention of users, help them better know your brand, highlight it against the background of symbols of other companies and competitors. The presence of a logo or other elements of corporate identity will allow the audience not to miss important news, promotions or other updates to your company;

You will be able to create a more holistic image of the company by branding social networks. Such sites are very important points of contact with customers, so the use of corporate identity will help you to remain consistent, while maintaining the integrity of your image in the eyes of the audience;

Branded content looks more attractive than regular photos, videos or text. With it, you can increase customer loyalty, gently advertise your brand, “accustom” them to your materials – as a result, they will respond positively to them by default.

As you can see, the competent design of social networks is of great importance for any enterprise, helping to establish a closer relationship with customers, which will positively affect the development of your business.

Social Media Branding Tips
So, you have developed a logo and corporate identity, created pages on social networks, defined their main goals (promotion of goods / services, work with reviews, etc.). Now is the time to proceed to the design of your accounts, following these tips:

Be consistent with the style of the pages, everywhere use the same fonts, color schemes, graphic elements, etc. Only in this way will you achieve that people will recognize your corporate colors even without a logo or company name;

The dimensions and other parameters of your logo should be adapted to the requirements of each individual social network. Do not use the logo of the same size for all sites, as it can be displayed there in cropped or stretched form. By the way, the Logaster service will help you immediately download various logo options of all necessary dimensions for popular social networks;

If the space on the avatar is limited, then it is better to use a simplified version of the logo, for example, without a text warehouse;

Pay special attention to the cover and photo (logo) of the account, because it is on them that the first look of each visitor is directed. It is important that they have the same style and color scheme with your corporate identity. You will be able to find a suitable caption for the theme of your business on photo stocks, or you can order it from a designer;

We recommend that you follow identical positioning and design when designing pages on different social networks. For example, if your logo on Facebook is in the lower right corner, then try to place it in about the same place and on other platforms (if possible);

You can also put any short text on the cover of your account – especially if it is really important / interesting information, for example, about a promotion, and you want users to see it first.

Having completed the design of the page, be sure to test it on all possible devices – PC, laptop, tablet, smartphone, etc. Make sure that all key elements look equally good at any screen resolution, not stretched or cropped. Any seeming trifle can significantly affect the reputation of your company and the loyalty of its audience.

Next, we will tell you how to upload your logo to the pages of popular social networks.

How to add an avatar (profile photo) on social networks
Below we consider the process of uploading a logo to Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Vkontakte, OK.ru, LinkedIn, YouTube and Pinterest. Make sure you have the right size logo versions.

Image sizes for social networks (2020):
Facebook
Image to external links: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 630 px
Cover: 820 x 312 px
Profile Photo: 170 x 170 px

In contact with
Image to external links: 537 x 240 px
Picture for post: 700 x 500 px
Profile photo: 200 x 500 px

Twitter
Tweet picture: 1024 x 675 px
Cover: 1500 x 500 px
Profile photo: 400 x 400 px

Instagram
Post picture: 1080 x 1080 px
Profile photo: 110 x 110 px

YouTube
Image over video: 1280 x 720 px
Channel cover: 2560 x 1440 px
Profile photo: 800 x 800 px

Pinterest
Picture for pin: 1000 x 1500 px
Profile photo: 165 x 165 px

Linkedin
Image to external links:: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 1200 px
Cover: 1584 x 768 px
Profile photo: 300 x 300 px

OK.ru
Picture for post: 1680 x 1680 px
Cover: 1340 x 320 px
Profile Photo: 190 x 190 px

How to upload an image
Facebook

First, make sure that you have a logo in PNG format of the right size – you can add it to your Facebook page.

How to add or change profile photo:

1. Log in to your Facebook account and go to your page.
2. Move the cursor over the place for the photo and click on the camera icon.
3. Select “Upload Photo”.
4. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. If necessary, the image can be cropped and arranged in accordance with the plan.
5. Click “Save.”

facebook min
How to add or change a cover:
1. Go to your page, hover over the cover image and click “Change Cover”.
2. Select Upload Photo.
3. Select the logo file and click Open. Position the image as you see fit.
4. Click Save.

Please note that although your profile photo is displayed on the user’s page as a square, in the news feed it takes the form of a circle. If you have a square logo, reduce its size so that the corners are not cut and it is not too crowded in a circle.

Twitter

File size requirements are listed here.
Note: unlike Facebook, where business accounts are created on the basis of personal accounts, Twitter needs to have a separate page for the company or project.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Twitter account and open your page by clicking on your name.
2. Click the Edit profile button on the right side of the page and click on your photo. Click Select Photo.
3. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. Position the logo as you see fit.
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.

How to add or change the image in the header:
1. Go to your page and click the “Edit Profile” button.
2. Click on the header and select the Add header option.
3. Select a file and click “Open.”
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.

In contact with

File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a VK group and community:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
If you do not have an avatar yet, the text “Upload a photo” will be highlighted in its place;
(if the image is already available, then just point it and the pop-up menu will offer you to update the photo).
2. Click on it and upload the logo;
3. Make sure that when reducing the avatar to a round version, your logo does not cease to be recognizable. To do this, select the desired area by clicking on “Change thumbnail”.

How to add or change cover art in a VK group and community:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Go to community settings;
3, Click on “Download” opposite “Community Cover;
4. Download the logo;
Make sure that the logo is not ridiculously cropped.

OK.ru

File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a group in Odnoklassniki:

1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Hover over the profile picture and click on “Add Image” from the pop-up menu;
3. Download the logo.

Instagram

File size requirements are listed here.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Instagram account from your phone. Open your profile by clicking on the corresponding icon.
2. Click on the profile photo and select “Upload Photo”. Select a file with a logo and press “Select”.
3. On the mobile device, click “Edit Profile” and select “Change Profile Photo”. After you select the file, click “Finish.”

instagram
LinkedIn

File size requirements are listed here.

How to add a logo to your LinkedIn company page:
1. On your profile page, click on the photo thumbnail and select “Change” in the “Company Page” tab.
2. Click the “Edit” button and click on the “Edit Page” line.
3. Scroll to the “Company Logo” section. Click the “Edit” button and add / change the logo. You can also change the location of the logo by dragging it to the desired location.
4. Click “Save.”

LinkedIn
YouTube

File size requirements are listed here and here.

How to add or change a profile photo (channel icon):
1. Log into your YouTube account.
2. Click on the line My Channel, located under the profile photo in the upper right.
3. Hover over an existing photo and click on the edit icon.
4. Click “Edit” and select the logo file. Position it as you see fit.

How to add or change channel background image:
1. Going to My channel, hover over the background image and click on the edit (or add) icon.
2. Download the file and see how it is displayed on various devices. Position it as you see fit.
3. Click “Select.”

Pinterest

File size requirements are listed here.

How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Pinterest account.
2. Click on the ellipsis at the top, then click on the “Settings” button. Scroll down to the Profile section.
3. Click “Change Image,” then select the logo file. Ra

arrange it as you see fit.
4. Click “Save Settings.”

Useful services for designing social networks
We have prepared a small list of services that will be useful to you when designing social networks. Bookmark them so you don’t lose:

Logaster – creating and downloading logos optimized for the requirements of social networks.
Crello – create designs for social media covers.
Sproutsociale – optimization of the size of finished images to the requirements of social networks.
Pablo.buffer.com – search for images for covers and overlay text on them.
Pixabay is a free photo stock for finding cover pictures.
Pexels is a bank of free photos for creating covers and posts on social networks.
Unsplash is another photo stock for social networks.
Jaymantri – abstract pictures for creating cover or post backgrounds.
Designspiration – search for inspiration.
Fonts.google.com – a collection of free fonts.
Coolors.co – collections of color schemes that will be useful in the design of posts and covers.
Google.com/test/mobile-friendly – check page optimization for mobile devices.

Representative offices in social networks significantly stimulate the development of the company, making it possible to increase its recognition and increase the number of points of contact with customers. Following these tips, you will create really powerful marketing tools that will help you attract many potential customers from popular social media.

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