Table of Content
1. Short Summary
2. Summary of Each Chapter Of
JAMB Novel For 2018 UTME- In Dependence By Sarah Mayinka
3. Themes of the novel in dependence by by Sarah Ladipo Manyika
4. Role of Major Characters of the novel in dependence by by Sarah Ladipo Manyika
5. SOME IMPORTANT CHARACTERS OF THE BOOK “IN DEPENDENCE”
6. Likely Questions From Each Chapter Of JAMB Novel For 2017 UTME- In Dependence By Sarah Mayinka
Analysis of the novel ‘IN DEPENDENCE by Sarah Ladipo Manyika’s
In Dependence tells the story of Tayo Ajayi, a Nigerian man who gets a scholarship to study at Oxford in the 1960s, and Vanessa Richardson, the daughter of an ex-colonial officer. While it is a story of their love which spans from 1963 to 1998, it’s way more than that. It’s also a story about Nigeria, its independence and the changes that occur in the country post-independence – the Biafran war, the first coup and the numerous countercoups, military dictatorships, the brief return to civilian rule, exile of Nigerians, and towards the end of the book the eventual return to democracy. There are also issues of race, racism and cultural differences. We see Tayo, Vanessa, as well as a host of other characters, live their lives amidst all these issues.
Tayo is an intelligent man but he always seems to do wrong. He tries to do the right thing, never wants to hurt anyone but in the end he does, especially the women in his life – and there are quite a number of women in his life that he hurts.
Vanessa, on the other hand, dreams of being a journalist writing on African issues, marrying Tayo and moving with him to Nigeria to start a new life. Unfortunately life gets in the way and a host of things prevent most of her dreams from coming true. She does end up living one of her dreams – being a world renowned journalist on African issues.
Tayo and Vanessa end up living their lives independent of each other but no matter what they did, and where they were, the thoughts and love they had for each other lingered on (even though the other didn’t necessarily know). I guess love really does stand the test of time.
Summary of Each Chapter Of JAMB Novel For 2018 UTME- In Dependence By Sarah Mayinka
Tayo is the first Nigeria to receive a scholarship to study at Balliol College, Oxford. He visits his relatives in the village of Ibadan before travelling the next day to uncle kayode’s house, another relative in Lagos.
On the day he sets to sail, his parents, headmaster, some of his teachers and other Lagos-based relatives stands at the Lagos port to bid him goodbye.
Tayo describes his journey through the seas and the warm reception he gets at England in a letter to his father. He mentions his new friends at the college and explains in details his perception of things in his new environment.
His father replies promptly, giving him precise report on the state of affairs in the family and the country.
Mr. and Mrs. Barker, Tayo’s older friends invites Tayo and Africans for a drink party in their home. There he formally meet Christine Arinze with whom he develops a casual relationship.
Vanessa attends a party with her friends. There, she meets Charlie and Mehul. She gets drunk and wakes up the next morning with a splitting headache. Vanessa takes up her pen to write an article for the school magazine but changes her mind to write to her friend Jane instead.
In attendance for the West Africa Society meeting is Tayo, his friends and other college students. After the meeting, he introduce himself to Vanessa Richardson who is also in attendance.
Inspite of being a trifle jealous of Tayo and Vanessa’s chit, Christine invites him over to her place. She tells him about how she is struggling to maintain her academic excellence amongst other things. He console her and assures her that she will excel like she’s always done.
Tayo and Vanessa goes for a walk in the direction of the meadows. They talk on various issues ranging from Malcolm X’s visit to oxford to Tayo’s father’s duties during colonial admission as well as Vanessa’s father and grandfather’s involvement in colonial services.
They outrun each other to a country pub where they bought drinks. They leave early because two men spill their drinks and Vanessa declines Tayo’s offer of another one.
Vanessa goes back home for the Christmas holiday. She receive a not so warm welcome from her family as the atmosphere between her parents is strangely cold. At dinner, she has a misunderstanding with her father about his inviting apartheid friend to the Christmas party her African friends will also attend.
Tayo arrives Aberleigh, Vanessa’s home in London for the Christmas party. Aside from being mistaken for a servant by one of mr. Richardson’s friend, everything else goes smoothly.
Vanessa visit Tayo in the room he is spending the night in. They talk briefly on the demeanor of her parents and Tayo discuss his mother at Vanessa’s prompting.
Tayo and Vanessa spend everyday of the week together and on Friday, she bring him daffodils to brighten up his room. Tayo shares one of his family photograph with Vanessa and the latter makes assessment of each member herself.
Vanessa on the other hand shares her worries about being on African correspondent considering her British lineage. Tayo reassures her that Africa needs good journalist; British or African can then pull her close for a dance.
Tayo and Vanessa spends Easter in Paris’ with Simon and Nima. Tayo gets his first writing journal from Vanessa where he documents their stay in Paris from the first day. There, they live the Bohemian life – all four of them. A day before the completion of their holiday, Tayo gets a telegram that Christine is dead. While Tayo grieves for her, he also blames himself for not being sensitive enough to her needs as a friend.
Vanessa and her family visits France to the Bastille holiday. Jane, Uncle Anthony, Mr and Mrs. Murdoch joins them in France. They engage in conflicting talks considering Uncle Anthony and Mr. Richardson’s ever opposing views. Later that night, Jane confess to sleeping with Uncle Tony on their way home from the train station and Venessa also tells Jane about her relationship with Tayo.
Vanessa writes to Tayo describing the weather in France and expresses her opinion on the margery Perham’s review he is working on. Tayo replies and fondly relates his experience so far in Bradford with his cousine Tunde where those who aren’t on scholarship like him have to work long hours to make end meet.
At Tunde’s house in Brandford, London. Tunde and Yusuf decides to hold a party in honour of Gambia’s independence. Yusuf and Tayo discuss the marriageability of either British or African women. The party is in full swing when Tayo finds himself pressing a lady to the wall. Suddenly he takes a punch to his jaw and a fight ensures.
A policeman arrives and takes them to the station for questioning.
Tayo decides against telling Vanessa the truth about his chpped tooth which he gets as a result of the fight in Bradford. He attends Yusuf’s wedding with Joy, where Vanessa later joins him. On their way back, Vanessa accuses Tayo of lying about his relationship with the late Christone. Tayo tries to cajole her from her outburst but Vanessa wouldn’t have none of it, so he leaves her in the carriage.
After their fight, Vanessa suggests they spend Christmas apart which Tayo promptly agrees to. He sets himself on a strict schedule and manages to survive alone until New Years Eve when he decides to make chicken stew. Vanessa walks in during his lousy attempt at cooking. They eventually settle their differences and spend the rest of the holiday together.
The New Year brings Tayo’s uncle, Kayode to England. Vanessa gets to meet one of his family members and they get on so well. They discuss various topics ranging from Tayo’s sporting prowess to Annais Nin, a writer of erotica. Vanessa concludes that she’ll love to meet the rest of Tayo’s family with Uncle as loving as that.
With a first-class degree and a graduate scholarship, Tayo gets a chance to speak at Bellamy Boy’s School where Mr. Richardson works as a headmaster. His lecture is solely on Nigeria and it makes a big hit in the school.
Mr. Richardson invites Tayo to his office after his lecture and tells him on clear terms his views on Tayo’s relationship with his daughter. Tayo returns to college sullen and Vanessa asks him what the matter is. He tells her father is not in support of their relationship to which Vanessa asks him to fight for them if he truely loves her.
Tayo is back in Ibadan, Nigeria due to his father’s critical illness. He tries unsuccessfully to write to Vanessa due to his incessant pleading for more details of Englad. While ruminating on what to tell Vanessa in his letter, Tayo is called outside his room to hear the news of unsuccessful coup to kill Ironsi.
This leads to unrest in some parts of the country but Tayo reassures the people, telling them not to panic.
Tayo sends Vanessa a letter after a long while apologising for his long silence. He attributes it to his father’s second heart attach, the coup d’ etat and the civil war.
Vanessa leaves for Lagos after her exams, ignoring Tayo’s telegram telling her not to visit yet.
After their loving reunion and Vanessa getting familliarized with the Lagos, Tayo tells Vanessa another woman is carrying his child. Vanessa, devastated, leaves.
1970 at Dakar, Semegal, Vanessa now works as a correspondent for Reuters. She makes friend with Salamatou a Senegalese who braids her hair and teaches her the local language, Wolof.
Salamatou asks her about her love life. She touches briefly on Tayo, explaining to her that she’s since move on.
Chapter Twenty One
In 1984, Tayo is a husband to Miriam and a father to Kemi. He is also an accomplished writer and a professor. One Sunday a month, they have lunch with friends at Yelwa club. There, they discuss various issues concerning the country and universities. After Lunch, Yusuf advises Tayo to limit the way he criticizes the government and Tayo tells him there’s nothing to worry about.
Chapter Twenty Two
Tayo recalls how nhe ends up with Marriam and Flips through Vanessa’s diary that he keeps in his drawer. Kemi, his daughter catches him unawares and chides him that he works too hard. Eventually, father tells daughter a story and they are joined by Mariam before they all go to bed.
Chapter Twenty Three
For the summer holiday, Tayo and his family decides to spend three weeks, Uncle Kayode’s in Lagos his mother and other relatives in Ibadan. Despite Miriam’s objection, Tayo visits an old man who serves Lord Lugard during his reign in Nigeria, instead of visting his mother in Ibadan.
On his return, he learns that his mother dies in a fatal accident while coming to Lagos to visit him and his family.
Chapter Twenty Four
Six months after the death of Tayo’s mother, the coup to overthrow the democratic rulers by the millitary takes place successfully. The people’s optimism quickly dies out when the millitary administration proves to be the as corrupt as the preceding rulers and this leads to lots of unrest and protests.
Admist the unrest, Miriam advises that they leaves Nigeria for England but Tayo objects claiming his loyalty to his country and wouldn’t let him.
Chapter Twenty Five
In 1990, Tayo’s hopes for improved educational system is dashed when a foundation that promises to help provides only second-hand books and old software programmes that can’t be used due to lack of computers. Miriam and Kemi leave for England the previous year.
Chapter Twenty Six
In 1994, Tayo on his way back from his office meets soldiers who has mount up road blocks in order to inspect citizens or collect bribes. Tayo is surprised they do not ask him for money but instead they take him to the barracks for questioning. He is severely beaten and ask to stop his critical writing against the government.
Chapter Twenty Seven
Tayo meets vanessa for the first time after their break up, during his tour of England while promoting his new book on Lord Lugard. After the seminar, they both catch up on each other’s lives. At the end of the evening, Tayo asks if he would kiss her but she politely declines, saying she would miss her train.
Chapter Twenty Eight
Vanessa sits at Broadwell Park reminiscing on her meeting with Tayo during his book tour. She revisit the past and dwells mostly on how she finds herself marrying Edward Barker, Tayo’s friend in Oxford. Later that evening, Vanessa receives Mandelo’s ‘Long walk To Freedom’ as a wedding present from her husband.
Chapter Twenty Nine
Tayo writes to Vanessa where he expresses himself freely like the old times. He shares his opinion on the role of artists in his letter. Vanessa earnestly implores him in her reply to be careful in his fall prey to the hands of military rulers. Tayo replies to her complaints about her failures as a mother by reasuring her she is a good mum and also tells her about his imperfections as a father and a husband.
Vanessa drives Suleiman to the airport where he leaves for Senegal, his home country. Vanessa is heartbroken with the way they part and worries about him constantly. She bares her heart in a letter to Tayo, expressing her sadness and longing for what could have being. Eventually, she decided not to send it.
Chapter Thirty One
Vanessa visits her father, Mr. Richardson, who is now old and lives in the Carrington Home for the Elderly. With her father is murdoch and Mrs. Halliday. After the brief visit, she buys a fitting skirt in preparation to meet Tayo at the airport the next day. Unfortunately, Tayo is not on the list of those on the expected plane.
Chapter Thirty Two
On Tayo’s way to the airport, his plan to visit Englad for a long while fails as he is involved in a ghasly accident orchestrated by the Nigerian military.
Chapter Thirty Three
After Tayo’s survival of the accident that lost the life of his driver, Abdou, he resorts to living at Kemi’s apartment in San Francisco. There she works as a nanny to fund her artistic pursuits.
Kemi sensing her father’s depression suggest that he sees a therapist. Tayo promptly refuses, saying he doesn’t need one. This outburst dregs up the ugly past making father and daughter exchange harsh words. Later that night, they apologize to one another.
Chapter Thirty Four
Vanessa, after the death of her father, tries to publish his manuscript. She finds out interesting news on the period of their stay in Nigeria as a family. She speculates on different twists to what leads to her mother’s early departure from Nigeria. She reconciles with Suleiman, her son, who on his return to England promptly apologizes and resolves to start up a business.
Chapter Thirty Five
Tayo gets the opportunity to teach, which he does not appreciate initially but soon seems to enjoy. His legs heal completely, given to his long walks. He later recives a letter from the Nigerian president that states that he has being awarded a honoraby degree from oxford.
Chapter Thirty Six
Family and friends gather for the occasion in the Sheldonian, England. Tayo, after receiving his award joins his family while Kemi introduces herself, miriam and some other family members to Vanessa and her son. Tayo and Vanessa later steals away from the party to have an alone time.
Themes of the novel in dependence by by Sarah Ladipo Manyika
The Theme of Love
Culture and Tradition
Role of Major Characters of the novel in dependence by by Sarah Ladipo Manyika
Tayo is the protagonist/main character of the novel. He is an intelligent man but he always seems to do wrong. He tries to do the right thing, never wants to hurt anyone but in the end he does, especially the women in his life – and there are quite a number of women in his life that he hurts.
Vanessa, on the other hand, dreams of being a journalist writing on African issues, marrying Tayo and moving with him to Nigeria to start a new life. Unfortunately life gets in the way and a host of things prevent most of her dreams from coming true. She does end up achieving one of her dreams – being a world renowned journalist on African issues.
Christine is the Nigerian woman that first caught Tayo’s eye. Christine is shown as an opinionated woman that does not shy away from engaging men in intellectual conversation. However, this character is killed off too quickly in the novel and the reason for her death—suicide, was not very convincing. It was hard to picture Christine as a love struck and defeated woman who would kill herself.
Vanessa’s cousin who is quite outspoken about her sexual encounter.
5. Vanessa’s Father
He was a colonial master in Nigeria before 1960. He is against Tayo marrying his daughter and has refused to accept Vanessa’s adopted half-cast son. He seemed more racial against half-casts earlier in the novel confronting Tayo about his fears for a half-cast grandchild. It was later understood that his hatred for the blacks was as a result of an affair his wife had with a black man during the colonial era.
SOME IMPORTANT CHARACTERS OF THE BOOK “IN DEPENDENCE”
. Inspector Adeniyi Ajayi:
Tayo’s father who was once a court servant and an interpreter in the native administration before joining the police.
Mr Jonathan Richardson:
Father of Venessa.
4. Mrs Elizabeth Richardson:
Mother of Venessa.
5. Mr Edward Maximilian Barker:
The one who welcomed Omotayo prior to the letter given to Tayo by Mr Faircliff.
6. Headmaster Faircliff:
7. Mr Clark:
Tayo’s Mathematics Teacher.
8. Mr Blackburn:
British empire history teacher.
9. Bisi and Remi:
Siblings of Tayo.
Tayo’s Lover before going to Oxford at age 19.
11. Uncle Bolu also known as Uncle B:
Tayo’s uncle who loved drinking and women. And women also loved him in return.
12. Uncle Oluwakayode Ogundipe:
A Big Man in Lagos, who lived in a luxurious, a senior army officer before leaving for France to study Engineering. He was able to meet Venessa.
Uncle Kayode’s wife.
14. Aunty Bayo:
Former girl friend of Uncle Kayode.
15. Mr Lekan Olajide from Ogbomoso on a voyage.
16. Mr Ibrahim Mohammed from Kaduna on a voyage
17. Mrs Isabella Barker: An attractive young Italian woman who preferred to be called “Isabella”.
18. Mr Ike Nwade: A student of History.
19. Mr Bolaji Ladipupo: A Law student.
20. Miss Christine Arinze:
A student of Modern language who later became Tayo’s girlfriend but had a misunderstanding with Tayo because he didn’t want a longtime relationship. She later on had Ike has her boyfriend. She died of drug overdose (Suicide).
21. Christopher Okigbo:
A poet and Omotayo’s teacher.
22. Venessa Richardson”
aka Moremi by Tayo to show her fighting spirit”: Tayo’s white Lady lover.
23. Gita from Kenya:
An English student.
A Friend to Venessa a physicist also (whites).
26. Charlie and Mehul:
The president of west African Student.
From Ghana who was with the idea that independence came far too early for africans
29. Maynes Keynes:
Venessa’s grandpa was in the colonial service Juma and Saratu? Are they cats?
30. Lord Lugard:
was once the governor of Hong kong before coming to Nigeria and he also became our governor in the year 1914
31. Nancy Murdoch and Mr Murdoch.
32. Uncle Tony:
who had s*x with Jane.
33. Madam Pagnole.
34. Chinua Achebe:
things fall apart and No longer at Ease.
The first president of Ghana and Senghor of Senegal Kenyatt.
the cousin of Tayo who works in the bakery.
37. Yusuf Abubakar:
who works in the hospital. HE believed white women were only meant for friendship but not for marriage with his genuine reasons.
Yusuf’s white girlfriend who said he hasn’t heard Yusuf speak Nigerian before and then Yusuf replied her: you daft one, no one speaks Nigerian.
39. Mr and Mrs winter:
across the road at Bradley
40. Joy Williams:
The black WOMAN Yusuf got married to.
41. Anais Nin:
The first British erotic writer.
42. Nigerian coup d’etat and Biafran war.
an hairstylist in Dakar, Senegal who died in a motor accident
44. Jean Luc:
A French who had promised to marry Salamatou but ran away after he got to know she was pregnant.
A nurse, whom treated Tayo’s father and got pregnant for Tayo. Got married to Tayo and gave birth to Kemi.
Daughter of Tayo and Miriam
47. President Shagari.
48. Mr Akin: A carver.
49. Wole Soyinka:
Okri the Booker.
51. Dogun Dutse Mobile station.
Salamatou’s son hence Venessa’s adopted son. A Muslim he became and a drop out from Cambridge.
The driver who was taken Tayo to the airport before an accident occur.
57. Professor John
Harris: He is the man whom Kemi introduced to his father from the University.
Likely Questions From Each Chapter Of JAMB Novel For 2018 UTME- In Dependence By Sarah Mayinka
Chapter One Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel In Dependence By Sarah Mayinka
1. For what purpose is Tayo travelling to England?
Ans: To take up a scholarship at Balliol College, Oxford
2. What is the name of Tayo’s school in England?
Ans: Balliol College
3. What is the significance of Tayo’s visit to relatives before embarking on his journey to England? Ans: It is their tradition
4. Through what means of transportation does Tayo travel to England?
Chapter Two Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel In Dependence By Sarah Mayinka
5. Why is Tayo surprised that people do not greet each other in passing in England?
Ans: Because in Nigeria, so much value is attached to greetings
6. In what subject did Bisi receive the highest honours?
7. In the Ajayi motto, all things are expected to be done with moderation except what?
Chapter Three Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answer of the novel In Dependence By Sarah Mayinka
8. Who is Mr Barker?
Ans: He His headmaster and Mr Faircliffe’s old colleague
9. What reminds Tayo of his mother in the Barkers’ house?
Ans: Isabella cooks wonderful meals in a way that reminds Tayo of his mother
10. Christine was in her third year of study when?
Ans: Tayo met her for the first Time
Chapter Four Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel In Dependence By Sarah Mayinka
11. What is Vanessa Richardson’s nationality?
12. What is the name of the friend that Vanessa wrote a letter to, concerning the status of women? Ans: Jane
13. The full meaning of JACARI is?
Ans: Joint Action Committee Against Racial Inequality
Chapter Five Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel In Dependence By Sarah Mayinka
14. What are Christine’s reasons for putting an end to her relationship with Tayo?
Ans: Because she was called ‘clingy’ and the fear of her boy being snatched by some woman
15. The language of fun among Tayo’s Nigerian friends is ?
16. What are the things that made Tayo remember home each time he is at Christine’s place?
Ans: Her cooking which reminds him of mama and the juju and highlife music she plays
Chapter Six Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel In Dependence By Sarah Mayinka
17. What is the trait that Nessa cherises in Tayo and that is absence in Charlie and Mehul?
18. What does Nessa mean by saying she has a ‘’small confession’’ to make?
Ans: She has connections to Nigeria as her father is a colonial officer over there
19. What did Tayo name Vanessa as?
Chapter Seven Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answer of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
20. What delicacies did Vanessa’s mother make to welcome her daughter?
Ans: Chicken pie and cake
21. For what occasion did her mother ask her whom she was inviting?
Ans: Christmas party
22. Whom did Vanessa’s father invite for the occasion?
Ans: His South African racist miner friends.
Chapter Eight Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
23. How old was the Richardson’s house when Tayo attended a party there?
Ans: About 200 years
24. “We all get embarrassed by our parents”. Who said this?
25: To whom was it said?
Chapter Nine Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers
of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
26. What, according to the narrator, did Nessa admire in Tayo when she visited him in the room and saw him organizing his records in piles?
Ans: His tidiness
Chapter Ten Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers
of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
27. Where did Simon suggest that they (him, Tayo and their two girlfriends) spend Easter?
28. Christine died by——?
29. Why did Tayo feel guilty about Christine’s death?
Ans: His refusal to respond properly to her letters and not giving her attention
Chapter Eleven Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
30. Who is the only family Tayo has in England?
31. Why does Vanessa’s father detest Uncle Tony?
Ans: To him, he is unconventional to him and because he had the opportunity of achieving a place at Cambridge University which Vanessa’s father didn’t have
32. What qualities did the narrator ascribe to Nancy?
Ans; She is being described as having a ‘supercilious (arrogantly proud) tone and feigned generosity’
Chapter Twelve Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
33. What made Tayo realise how lucky he was for getting a scholarship at Balliol?
Ans: He witnessed the life of struggle most African students live, engaging in ridiculous and exhausting jobs such as bakery and hospital work to make ends meet
34. What do the signs: “No Dogs, No Irish, No Coloureds’’ (Africans and Indians) symbolise in the novel?
35. The least strenuous work was reserved for whom?
Ans: The English
Chapter Thirteen Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
36. Where was bathing done since there is no bathroom in Tunde’s house?
Ans; Kitchen (in tins) or public baths.
37. For what purpose(s) did Tunde throw a party in his house?
Ans: For Tayo and to celebrate Gambia’s independence
38. ‘’Nigerian women are the best’’ who said this?
Chapter Fourteen Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
39. Whose wedding did Tayo and Vanessa attend?
40. Joyce was expected to be the bride, but the bride turned out to be whom?
41. ‘’No! Don’t Moremi me’’ Who made this statement?
Fifteen Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers
of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
42. On New Year’s Eve, what happened to Tayo?
Ans: He woke up homesick
43. Where did he buy his chicken from?
Ans: The Covered Market
Chapter Sixteen Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
44. The finest hotel in Oxford is…?
Ans: Randolph Hotel
45. According to the narrative, who is Tayo’s favourite uncle?
Ans: Uncle Kayode
Chapter Seven Teen Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
46. Who invited Tayo to lead his school assembly with a lecture on Nigeria?
Ans: Mr Richardson
47. ‘’What are your intentions with my daughter?’’ Who made this statement?
Ans: Mr Richardson
48. Who sent Tayo the telegram which reads: ‘’Baba is in hospital, recovering. Return home immediately’’?
Ans: Tayo’s mother
Chapter Eighteen Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
49. What does Tayo despise Mr Richardson for?
50. Who is Dele?
Ans: The village drunk
Chapter Nineteen Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
51. What circumstance led to the end of Tayo and Vanessa’s relationship?
Ans: Tayo impregnated a woman
Chapter Tweenty Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
52. In this narrative, Nessa’s dreams as portrayed by the writer are…?
Ans: Writing about African art and culture
53. Who is Salamatou?
Ans: A single mother of half-caste Sulaiman
Chapter Tweentyone Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
54. In Tayo’s opinion, what are the root causes of oil corruption and a broken civil service in Nigeria? Ans: Greed and mismanagement
55. In what university was Tayo offered a job?
Ans: Birmingham University
56. Who is Miriam?
Answer: Tayo’s wife
Chapter Twenty-two Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
57. Whose diary did Tayo discover in his study?
58. Why is Miriam loved by Tayo’s family?
Ans: She nursed Tayo’s father with care when he had stroke
Chapter Twenty-three Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
59. Whose house is described as ‘Beauty in the Heart of Darkness’?
Ans: Uncle Kayode’s house
60, What is the name of the local artiste that took Tayo to the village?
Chapter Twenty-Four Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
61. What led to the closure of universities?
Ans: University students protest
62. For what reason is Tayo Opposed to leaving the country?
Ans: He Wanted to wait and help his students
Chapter Twenty FiveLikely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
63. In order of occurrence, what are the challenges Tayo faced that made him reconsider leaving Nigeria?
Ans: The broken pipe, his house boy’s leave of him, his disappointment in the Foundation and threats to his life.
64. What was his purpose of planning to travel to New York, even though he eventually could not? Ans: To receive an award for his book
65. Why did Simon arrange a meeting for Tayo and whom did he hold it with?
Ans: To help in the possible funding of Tayo’s university
66. What was the outcome of the meeting?
Chapter Twenty-Six Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
67. Who challenged Tayo on the road on his way home?
Ans: The soldiers
68. What reason did the soldiers give for bringing Tayo home?
Ans: They said Tayo had an accident while driving recklessly
Chapter Twenty-Seven Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
69. What circumstance led to the death of Nessa’s mother?
70. What killed Tayo’s father?
71. By what means did Tayo’s mother die?
Ans: An accident
Chapter Twenty-Eight Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
72. How many years of marriage did Nessa and Edward celebrate at their wedding anniversary?
Ans: 18 years
73. ‘’To the woman I love, and with whom I have walked the best 18 years of my life’’. Who made this statement?
74. To whom was the statement made?
Chapter Twenty-Nine Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
75. What is responsible for the divorce between Tayo and his wife?
Ans: Tayo took priority in his students over his wife and child
76. For what reason was Tayo detained?
Ans: For showing his students Perry Henzel’s film, The Harder They Come.
Chapter Thirty Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
77. What does Vanessa mean by the pick-up-your-stick-and-sandals marriage?
Ans: A kind of love story wherein two lovers who are each other’s first love do not get to marry each other but meet later in life to re-unite
78. ‘’Ah, fuck you, Mum!’’ Who said this?
Chapter Thirty-One Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
79. What is the name of the home in which Nessa went to check on her aged father?
Ans: The Carrington Home for the Elderly
80. For what reason did Nessa tell her father when she was going to the airport?
Ans: To meet Tayo
81. What was her father looking for before she came?
Ans: His pen
Chapter Thirty-Two Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
82. What is name of Tayo’s driver?
83. ‘’Marriage is a serious thing’’ who said this?
84. To whom was it said?
Chapter Thirty-Three Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
85. In what part of the U.S. did Kemi reside?
Ans: San Francisco
86. Whose money was used for Tayo’s treatment after his accident?
Chapter Thirty-Four Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
87. Why was Vanessa initially reluctant to publish her father’s manuscript?
Ans: The poor relationship between her and her father
88. Why did Vanessa’s mother return to England with young Vanessa, while her father remained in Nigeria?
Ans: Vanessa’s mother had an affair with their gardener, Danjuma.
Chapter Thirty-Five Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
89. Tayo was employed to teach Oral histories in Northern Nigeria and the political history of West Africa in?
Ans: San Francisco.
90. ‘‘…Race is a part of the fabric of this nation. You’re either black or you’re white, and this affects every aspect of your life’’ who said this?
91. To whom was this said?
Chapter Thirty-Six Likely JAMB UTME Questions And Answers of the novel ‘In Dependence’ By Sarah Mayinka
92. What honorary degree did Tayo receive?
Ans: Doctorate of literature
93. Who asked Tayo and Nessa to help take a photograph of them?
Ans: A middle-aged couple
94. Did Miriam grace the occasion of Tayo’s award of honorary degree?
About the Novel
In Dependence was published in the UK in 2008; in Nigeria in 2009 and in the US in 2011. It is Sarah Ladipo Manyika’s debut novel. The novel begins in the early 1960s when Tayo Ajayi meets Vanessa Richardson, the beautiful daughter of an ex-colonial officer. Their story, which spans three continents and four turbulent decades, is that of a brave but bittersweet love affair. It is the story of individuals struggling to find their place within uncertain political times – a story of passion and idealism, courage and betrayal.
Although, In Dependence can suitably pass for a love story, it is far more than that, as it also traces the journey of the political history of Nigeria; the military coups, the bad and deceitful leadership and its experimental steps towards democracy/civilian rule.
Also, it brings the social realities of Nigeria into light- a situation where the poor gets poorer everyday without any improvement. With the events surrounding Tayo’s life, Sarah Manyika brings to limelight the effects of bad governance on the country’s tertiary institutions (universities) and the ensuing massive brain drain that Africa has experienced. There are also issues of racial discrimination and cultural dichotomy and we see Tayo, Vanessa and other characters live their lives amidst these issues.
Outside the political spheres, In Dependence is Tayo and Vanessa’s story of a brave but bittersweet love affair. It is the story of two people struggling to find themselves and each other – a story of passion and idealism, courage and betrayal, and the universal desire to fall, madly and deeply in love.
Furthermore, it is a convincing narrative on the price we pay for the decisions we make in our lives, whether right or wrong; and life sometimes is just about doing what makes you happy regardless of people’s opinions. Unfortunately, most of African cultures reject such philosophy. For us, life is not only about the individual but also about family, relatives, communities, tradition, culture etc.
Through an authentic and objective voice, the novelist ensures that all these realities that characterize Nigeria and Africa at large are adequately portrayed in her story.
About the Author
Sarah Ladipo Manyika was raised in Nigeria and has lived in Kenya, France, and England. She holds a Ph.D from the University of California, Berkeley, and currently teaches literature at San Francisco State University. Her writing includes essays, academic papers, reviews and short stories. Her second novel, Like a Mule Bringing Ice Cream to the Sun was published April 1, 2016 by Cassava Republic Press (Abuja-London). Her debut novel, In Dependence was published by Legend Press (London) and Cassava Republic Press.
I’m attracted to you, but not physically – Erica to Laycon (Video)
BBNaija housemate, Erica has opened up to Laycon that she is not in any way attracted to him physically, but mentally.
She made this known to the rapper during a discussion yesterday after he approached her to reiterate his interest in her.
Recall that Laycon had told Erica on Tuesday that he had feelings for her and cares about being in a relationship with her.
However, hours later, Erica and Kiddwaya had a steamy session in bed.
Seeking clarifications on Tuesday night, Laycon approached Erica to reveal her feelings for him.
During the conversation, Erica told Laycon that she is only mentally attracted to him but physically attracted to Kiddwaya.
“I’M MENTALLY ATTRACTED TO YOU BUT ATTRACTED TO KIDDWAYA PHYSICALLY. I’VE DECIDED NOT TO OVERTHINK ANYTHING WITH KIDDWAYA ,I JUST WANT TO BE HAPPY. LET’S JUST GO BACK TO HOW WE WERE BUT I HATE MAKING OTHERS FEEL BAD.”
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10 African Countries With the Most Number of Universities
Brief History of African Universities
It is being observed that those individuals who are intellectuals, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbour them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce. While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus.
One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.
Among those works that focused on higher education under British influence, in which Eric Ashby is often referred to as a classic.
More recent works include that of Okunor, which focused on West African countries under strong British and American influence such as Gold Coast, Sierra Leone, and Liberia. A significant additional work on higher education is the Eastern and Southern African Universities Research Programme that was conducted in 1984. Such studies commonly view the colonial era as the beginning of modern higher education in Africa and do not refer to the higher education institutions that existed before colonialism.
It is well known that people who are scholars, as well as the higher education institutions that foster and harbor them, have significant roles to play in the development of a society. Even so, historical studies of higher education institutions on the African continent remain significantly scarce.
While certain exceptions do exist, even these have only a limited focus. One likely explanation is the fact that the African continent as a whole is simply too large as a unit of analysis. Another is the compartmentalization of researchers by the official languages of the regions to be studied, making any comprehensive analysis beyond boundaries such as Anglophone and Francophone quite tricky. Given this situation, moreover, it is understandable that a few historical works on higher education in Africa that have been written in English are biased toward the former British colonies after colonialism.
African Universities Ranking Among Others
There are many different rankings and league tables, and several African universities consistently per population. The University Rankings focuses on four broad areas that they feel are of particular interest to prospective students: research, teaching, employability, and international outlook.
These four key areas are assessed using six indicators, with each given a different percentage weighting. A strong emphasis is placed on
- Academic reputation
- Faculty/student ratio
- Citations per faculty
- Employer reputation
- International student ratio
- International staff ratio
The World University Rankings places a strong emphasis on reputation. The ‘academic reputation’ is assessed through a global survey completed by academics, and the ’employer reputation’ is assessed through a survey of employers worldwide. While the rankings also score research citations, smaller and specialist institutions can be included in this ranking if they have a strong global reputation.
Notably, South Africa has four universities ranked among the top 200 in Africa;however, here are a few African universities that made it under the top 1000 in the world.
|S/N||University||Country||African Ranking||World Ranking|
|1||University of Cape Town||South Africa||1||136th|
|2||University of the Witwatersrand||South Africa||2||194th|
|3||Stellenbosch University||South Africa||3||259th|
|6||University of Kwazulu-Natal||South Africa||6||472th|
|8||University of Ibadan||Nigeria||8||524th|
|10||Suez Canal University||Egypt||10||586th|
Top 10 African Countries with the Most Universities
University education is more than the next level in the learning process; it is a critical component of human development worldwide. It provides not only the high-level skills necessary for every labour market but also the training essential for teachers, doctors, nurses, civil servants, engineers, humanists, entrepreneurs, scientists, social scientists, and a myriad of other personnel. It is these trained individuals who develop the capacity and analytical skills that drive local economies, support civil society, teach children, lead capable governments, and make critical decisions that affect entire societies.
An educated populace is vital in today’s world, with the convergent impacts of globalization, the increasing importance of knowledge as a primary driver of growth, and the information and communication revolution. Knowledge accumulation and application have become significant factors in economic development and are increasingly at the core of a country’s competitive advantage in the global economy.
The combination of increased computing power, diminishing prices of hardware and software, improvement of wireless and satellite technologies, and reduced telecommunication costs have all but removed the space and time barriers to information access and exchange.
|S/N||Country||Number Of Universities||Country By Population|
|4||Democratic Republic of Congo||60||89,561,456|
These countries simultaneously raised their rates of participation in higher education. Indeed, the countries that benefited most from integration with the world economy achieved the most marked increases in educational levels.
Besides, there is growing evidence that university education, through its role in empowering domestic constituencies, building institutions, and nurturing favourable regulatory frameworks and governance structures, is vital to a country’s efforts. This is to increase social capital and to promote social cohesion, which is proving to be an essential determinant of economic growth and development.
Benefits of Studying in an African University
Study and learn during a Different way
Often those studying in Africa will experience a completely new way of teaching. this will be daunting, but it’ll also open your mind to new ways of learning.
Opportunity to make unforgettable experiences
Study shows that folks are happier and feel more fulfilled once they spend on experience than once they buy new things. once you consider the items that bring you the foremost joy, they’re usually memorable experiences. you’ll get tons of that from studying in Africa
African Degrees are well respected It
If pursuing knowledgeable career is your goal, international education and knowledge on the CV will assist you stand out. it’ll also represent you as someone who is up for a challenge. Especially now that African universities are climbing the ranks in world university rankings
Opportunity to get unique ideas and opportunities
Most of the successful businesses in Africa and Asia were found out by people that gained international exposure and education. Econet, Celtel, IrokoTv, Jumia, and more. By studying in Africa, if you’re curious, you’ll find new ways to unravel a drag back home.
Opportunity to find out a replacement language
Studying during a country that speaks a special official language as yours is among the simplest ways to find out or brush up a replacement language. Imagine being close to communicate in German, French, or Mandarin. that would are available handy along your career path. Africa is diverse when it involves languages. All you’ve got to try to to is pick those that interest you the foremost .
Studying during a foreign country is different from tourism
Travel for a vacation is extremely different from settling during a foreign country for a yearlong study. you’ll get to experience your home of study for a more extended period and familiarize yourself with local knowledge like what tourist traps to avoid and the way to urge the foremost out of your new city.
Opportunity to experience the rich African culture
Yes, food. you only haven’t any idea about the variability of food that exists out there. you’ll never know until you venture out. you’ll even discover your new favourite.
Opportunity to require advantage of lower tuition fees
This, of course, depends on where you study in Africa. However, if you select a location in many parts of continental Europe, Asia, and Latin America , you’ll find it’s impossible to review at a highly reputed university without stepping into debt.
You will meet a various range of individuals
You will experience exposure to several differing types of individuals won’t only assist you to develop your people skills, but it’ll also offer you a firmer knowledge of others.
Enjoy international student discounts
Many famous Universities in Africa destinations offer student discounts for various activities, from transportation, bookstores to movie tickets and museums. you only need to spend wisely.
Opportunity to form lifelong friends
You will quickly develop the attitude that we are during this , along side other international students. this will end in lifelong friendships, even with the local students. you’ll not love every single person you meet, but the probabilities are that you’ll meet a minimum of one lifelong friend.
You will gain a more excellent knowledge of various cultures
As you observe and learn why people from different cultures do things the way they are doing , your emotional intelligence develops. you’ll learn to be less judgmental.
Opportunity to become spontaneous and adventurous
Being during a foreign environment ignites your adventurous nature. You tend to require to explore your new environment. Open your mind up to new experiences and sights and learn an excellent deal while having some fun.
Opportunity to explore together with your spare time
In between lectures and lab sessions, studying Africa should leave you with many time to explore. Whether you’re one for visiting iconic landmarks, trying new foods, or bartering at local markets, there’s sure to be a far better way of paying some time than scrolling through Facebook!
There is a robust involve strengthening universities and research within the new Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025. Its objectives include boosting postgraduate and post-doctoral education and growing competitive awards to nurture young academics, more international research cooperation, and expanding centres of excellence and institutional links.
Tertiary education and research are given more stress than in previous education statements, reflecting continental realization of their importance to growth and development.
The Continental Education Strategy for Africa 2016-2025, or CESA 16-25, is driven by a desire to realize quality education and training that gives the continent with “efficient human resources adapted to African core values and thus ready to achieve the vision and ambitions of the African Union.”
Strategic Objectives of African Universities
Revitalize the teaching profession to make sure quality and relevance in the least levels of education.
To build, rehabilitate, and support education infrastructure and develop policies that ensure a permanent stress-free and conducive learning environment for all to expand access to quality education in the least levels, including informal and non-formal settings.
Harness the capacity of ICT to enhance access, quality, and management of education and training systems.
Ensure acquisition of requisite knowledge and skills also as improved completion rates altogether groups through harmonization processes across all levels for national and regional integration.
Accelerate processes resulting in gender parity and equity.
Launch comprehensive and useful literacy programs across the continent.
Strengthen the science and arithmetic curricula in youth training and disseminate knowledge domain and culture in society.
Expand technical and vocational opportunities at both secondary and tertiary levels and strengthen linkages between the planet of labor and education and training systems.
Revitalize and expand tertiary education, research, and innovation to deal with continental challenges and promote global competitiveness.
Promote peace education and conflict prevention and determination in the least levels of education and for all age groups.
Improve management of education systems and build capacity for data collection, management, analysis, communication, and use.
Create a coalition of stakeholders to facilitate and support activities resulting from the implementation of CESA 16-25. Of importance to education is that the got to train well-qualified teachers and deliver continuous professional development.
Good university programs should integrate entrepreneurship and leadership training in their curriculum, in order that they produce graduates who have the soft-skills to play an impactful role in Africa’s economic transformation, and who begin not as job-seekers but as job creators. Eventually, aligning education to the stress of the market requires that we measure how successful universities fuse the lecture hall with the planet of labor .
Furthermore, the African countries with the foremost universities span across ten countries, from Uganda within the east to Nigeria within the west, Morocco within the north to South Africa at the southernmost tip of the continent.
In the University rankings, Two of South Africa’s universities feature within the top 200 of the worldwide rankings: the University of Cape Town is Africa’s top university, sitting at joint 136th position, while the University of Witwatersrand occupies the joint 194th spot.
Overall, Egypt and South Africa are the 2 best represented African countries within the ranking, with 20 and 10 universities each. Egypt, Nigeria, and South Africa all have universities within the top 500 of the worldwide ranking. Finally, the ranking rates university performance using 13 different indicators; a number of which are measuring teaching, research, research impact, innovation, and international outlook.
In summary, variety is that the spice of life. Why not take that bold step towards gaining admission to review in Africa. YOUR SUCCESS MATTERS!
How to design social networks: design tips, image sizes, useful services
Today we are using generated company symbols to properly mark your social networks.
If you still do not have a logo and corporate identity, then our Logaster generator will always help to develop them quickly and efficiently.
Why should your business be represented on social networks?
Social networks are an integral part of the modern Internet, they have a huge audience and will become worthy platforms for promoting your brand. So, why does your company have to have pages on popular social networks?
Internet reputation management. Corporate social media accounts will help you post the most current, relevant and reliable information about the company, cover its activities from the best perspectives, which will positively affect your reputation;
Strengthen industry influence. Social networks are considered to be a powerful networking tool – creating useful links in the industry that interests you. Owing to this, you can quickly identify and collect useful information and connections for potential customers , associates, staff, investors;
Expanding audience reach. With the help of social networks, you will be able to significantly increase the number of points of contact with the target audience, a significant part of which may want to purchase your goods or services;
Improving customer loyalty. By regularly visiting your corporate accounts, you can work with customer reviews, complaints and suggestions. Prompt feedback will help you make your audience much more loyal and positive;
More effective search engine promotion. Conscientious maintenance of pages on social networks with frequent updating of unique content will significantly improve the position of your company’s website in search engine delivery (Google, Yandex);
Benefits for other marketing tools. Proper use of social media will bring an additional effect for solving other marketing tasks of your brand – from a corporate blog and electronic mailings to webinars or offline events.
More reasons can be found here.
What social networks should be made out?
The choice of the channel with which you can “reach out” to the target audience, and the competent design of the profile is an important and necessary marketing move.
The most popular among businesses in the CIS are sites such as Instagram, Facebook, VK, Odnoklassniki, YouTube. Here are some tips for choosing social networks for maintaining and promoting:
Which social networks should be emphasized largely depends on the subject of the project. For example, if your business is associated with any kind of creativity, then social networks such as YouTube (for creating video content), Instagram (photos of products, especially designer clothes, clothes, hand-made), SoundCloud (writing music) are best suited for its promotion.
If you have a typical company, VK and Facebook will provide the best response to the “basic” social networks. As for the Instagram service, it has proven itself for various areas of online business, including online stores (especially with goods for women), creative services, etc.
Closely monitor web analytics – it will help determine which services the largest number of visitors and purchases come to you from. By default, VK, Facebook, Odnoklassniki are considered the most useful among our entrepreneurs, followed by Twitter, Instagram and Youtube.
At the same time, we recommend not to “spray” on all available social networks, but to focus on those that lead major customers. It will be useful to study the pages of competitors, which can suggest some useful details. Of course, this advice is for those projects that already have a small traffic to the site.
You can also create corporate accounts in all specified social networks, arrange them, but only 2-3 of them are actively promoted and updated – the most effective for you. So you can save your time and at the same time not miss potential customers.
A professional publishing and communication strategy for every channel is equally essential. For example, Facebook and VK are ideally suited for posting informational content (posts, articles, news), working with reviews, orders and customer requests, targeted advertising, etc.
In turn, Instagram ideally sells goods or services with photos, and on YouTube you can effectively post video reviews and presentations of your products, instructions.
Proper design of social networks – why is it so important?
It is not enough just to create company accounts in social networks, you also need to issue them in a high-quality manner. Proper branding plays a very important role, since any Internet user is now simply overloaded with information, especially in social networks. There is an opinion that an ordinary person sees hundreds of logos of various brands every day – both online and in reality.
Do not believe? Then just look back on the sides, go to your favourite sites and count the number of corporate symbols surrounding you.
Careful design of social networks will help to stand out against the background of numerous visual “spam”, and it will also provide your business with a number of advantages:
With it, you can attract the attention of users, help them better know your brand, highlight it against the background of symbols of other companies and competitors. The presence of a logo or other elements of corporate identity will allow the audience not to miss important news, promotions or other updates to your company;
You will be able to create a more holistic image of the company by branding social networks. Such sites are very important points of contact with customers, so the use of corporate identity will help you to remain consistent, while maintaining the integrity of your image in the eyes of the audience;
Branded content looks more attractive than regular photos, videos or text. With it, you can increase customer loyalty, gently advertise your brand, “accustom” them to your materials – as a result, they will respond positively to them by default.
As you can see, the competent design of social networks is of great importance for any enterprise, helping to establish a closer relationship with customers, which will positively affect the development of your business.
Social Media Branding Tips
So, you have developed a logo and corporate identity, created pages on social networks, defined their main goals (promotion of goods / services, work with reviews, etc.). Now is the time to proceed to the design of your accounts, following these tips:
Be consistent with the style of the pages, everywhere use the same fonts, color schemes, graphic elements, etc. Only in this way will you achieve that people will recognize your corporate colors even without a logo or company name;
The dimensions and other parameters of your logo should be adapted to the requirements of each individual social network. Do not use the logo of the same size for all sites, as it can be displayed there in cropped or stretched form. By the way, the Logaster service will help you immediately download various logo options of all necessary dimensions for popular social networks;
If the space on the avatar is limited, then it is better to use a simplified version of the logo, for example, without a text warehouse;
Pay special attention to the cover and photo (logo) of the account, because it is on them that the first look of each visitor is directed. It is important that they have the same style and color scheme with your corporate identity. You will be able to find a suitable caption for the theme of your business on photo stocks, or you can order it from a designer;
We recommend that you follow identical positioning and design when designing pages on different social networks. For example, if your logo on Facebook is in the lower right corner, then try to place it in about the same place and on other platforms (if possible);
You can also put any short text on the cover of your account – especially if it is really important / interesting information, for example, about a promotion, and you want users to see it first.
Having completed the design of the page, be sure to test it on all possible devices – PC, laptop, tablet, smartphone, etc. Make sure that all key elements look equally good at any screen resolution, not stretched or cropped. Any seeming trifle can significantly affect the reputation of your company and the loyalty of its audience.
Next, we will tell you how to upload your logo to the pages of popular social networks.
How to add an avatar (profile photo) on social networks
Below we consider the process of uploading a logo to Facebook, Twitter, Instagram, Vkontakte, OK.ru, LinkedIn, YouTube and Pinterest. Make sure you have the right size logo versions.
Image sizes for social networks (2020):
Image to external links: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 630 px
Cover: 820 x 312 px
Profile Photo: 170 x 170 px
In contact with
Image to external links: 537 x 240 px
Picture for post: 700 x 500 px
Profile photo: 200 x 500 px
Tweet picture: 1024 x 675 px
Cover: 1500 x 500 px
Profile photo: 400 x 400 px
Post picture: 1080 x 1080 px
Profile photo: 110 x 110 px
Image over video: 1280 x 720 px
Channel cover: 2560 x 1440 px
Profile photo: 800 x 800 px
Picture for pin: 1000 x 1500 px
Profile photo: 165 x 165 px
Image to external links:: 1200 x 628 px
Picture for post: 1200 x 1200 px
Cover: 1584 x 768 px
Profile photo: 300 x 300 px
Picture for post: 1680 x 1680 px
Cover: 1340 x 320 px
Profile Photo: 190 x 190 px
How to upload an image
First, make sure that you have a logo in PNG format of the right size – you can add it to your Facebook page.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Facebook account and go to your page.
2. Move the cursor over the place for the photo and click on the camera icon.
3. Select “Upload Photo”.
4. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. If necessary, the image can be cropped and arranged in accordance with the plan.
5. Click “Save.”
How to add or change a cover:
1. Go to your page, hover over the cover image and click “Change Cover”.
2. Select Upload Photo.
3. Select the logo file and click Open. Position the image as you see fit.
4. Click Save.
Please note that although your profile photo is displayed on the user’s page as a square, in the news feed it takes the form of a circle. If you have a square logo, reduce its size so that the corners are not cut and it is not too crowded in a circle.
File size requirements are listed here.
Note: unlike Facebook, where business accounts are created on the basis of personal accounts, Twitter needs to have a separate page for the company or project.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Twitter account and open your page by clicking on your name.
2. Click the Edit profile button on the right side of the page and click on your photo. Click Select Photo.
3. Select a file with a logo and press “Open”. Position the logo as you see fit.
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.
How to add or change the image in the header:
1. Go to your page and click the “Edit Profile” button.
2. Click on the header and select the Add header option.
3. Select a file and click “Open.”
4. To finish the setup, click “Save Changes”.
In contact with
File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a VK group and community:
1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
If you do not have an avatar yet, the text “Upload a photo” will be highlighted in its place;
(if the image is already available, then just point it and the pop-up menu will offer you to update the photo).
2. Click on it and upload the logo;
3. Make sure that when reducing the avatar to a round version, your logo does not cease to be recognizable. To do this, select the desired area by clicking on “Change thumbnail”.
How to add or change cover art in a VK group and community:
1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Go to community settings;
3, Click on “Download” opposite “Community Cover;
4. Download the logo;
Make sure that the logo is not ridiculously cropped.
File size requirements are listed here. How to add or change an image in a group in Odnoklassniki:
1. Go to your personal account, go to the desired group;
2. Hover over the profile picture and click on “Add Image” from the pop-up menu;
3. Download the logo.
File size requirements are listed here.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Instagram account from your phone. Open your profile by clicking on the corresponding icon.
2. Click on the profile photo and select “Upload Photo”. Select a file with a logo and press “Select”.
3. On the mobile device, click “Edit Profile” and select “Change Profile Photo”. After you select the file, click “Finish.”
File size requirements are listed here.
How to add a logo to your LinkedIn company page:
1. On your profile page, click on the photo thumbnail and select “Change” in the “Company Page” tab.
2. Click the “Edit” button and click on the “Edit Page” line.
3. Scroll to the “Company Logo” section. Click the “Edit” button and add / change the logo. You can also change the location of the logo by dragging it to the desired location.
4. Click “Save.”
File size requirements are listed here and here.
How to add or change a profile photo (channel icon):
1. Log into your YouTube account.
2. Click on the line My Channel, located under the profile photo in the upper right.
3. Hover over an existing photo and click on the edit icon.
4. Click “Edit” and select the logo file. Position it as you see fit.
How to add or change channel background image:
1. Going to My channel, hover over the background image and click on the edit (or add) icon.
2. Download the file and see how it is displayed on various devices. Position it as you see fit.
3. Click “Select.”
File size requirements are listed here.
How to add or change profile photo:
1. Log in to your Pinterest account.
2. Click on the ellipsis at the top, then click on the “Settings” button. Scroll down to the Profile section.
3. Click “Change Image,” then select the logo file. Ra
arrange it as you see fit.
4. Click “Save Settings.”
Useful services for designing social networks
We have prepared a small list of services that will be useful to you when designing social networks. Bookmark them so you don’t lose:
Logaster – creating and downloading logos optimized for the requirements of social networks.
Crello – create designs for social media covers.
Sproutsociale – optimization of the size of finished images to the requirements of social networks.
Pablo.buffer.com – search for images for covers and overlay text on them.
Pixabay is a free photo stock for finding cover pictures.
Pexels is a bank of free photos for creating covers and posts on social networks.
Unsplash is another photo stock for social networks.
Jaymantri – abstract pictures for creating cover or post backgrounds.
Designspiration – search for inspiration.
Fonts.google.com – a collection of free fonts.
Coolors.co – collections of color schemes that will be useful in the design of posts and covers.
Google.com/test/mobile-friendly – check page optimization for mobile devices.
Representative offices in social networks significantly stimulate the development of the company, making it possible to increase its recognition and increase the number of points of contact with customers. Following these tips, you will create really powerful marketing tools that will help you attract many potential customers from popular social media.
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